Feline Infectious Peritonitis- neurotropic
History: A 7 month old female intact DSH kitten had neurologic signs and seizures in the past few months (Along with several others from a shelter). This particular kitten presented for circling and ataxia.
Gross lesions were limited to multifocal petechiae in the white matter of the cerebellum.
Brain: There are moderate numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes tightly surrounding blood vessels in the meninges, superficial cerebral and brainstem blood vessels and expanding Virchow-Robbins space. Similar cellular infiltrates surround blood vessels adjacent to the lateral ventricle and central canal. There are lesser numbers of these cells located below the ependyma of the lateral ventricles and central canal.
Brain: Multifocal granulomatous meningitis, perivasculitis and periventriculitis
Further diagnostics were cost prohibitive in this case. The character of the lesions were attributed to the dry form of FIP. More typical lesions of the dry form include multifocal pyogranulomas on serosal surfaces of visceral organs. In constrast, the wet form presents as profuse body cavity effusions that are protein rich.
The neurologic form of FIP is a recognized subset of the infection with the FIP mutation of feline enteric coronavirus. A high CSF IgG titer to feline coronavirus is considered diagnostic.
Foley JE, Lapointe JM, Koblik P, Poland A, Pedersen NC. Diagnostic features of clinical neurologic feline infectious peritonitis. J Vet Intern Med. 1998 Nov-Dec;12(6):415-23.
Niels C Pedersen. A synopsis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/ccah/documents/FIP_Synopsis_Jan13_09.pdf