Primates


Multiple Granulomas in Three Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Caused by Mycobacterium microti (vol 137 p 245-248)– multiple granulomas in the mesentery, mesenteric lymph nodes, lung, liver, kidneys and spleen, while the other showed granulomas only in the lung. The animal with paralysis of the legs had an abscess-like lesion in the skeletal muscle of the neck, granulomas in the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes, and a fracture of the thirteenth thoracic vertebra with severe lesions of the spinal cord. Histologically the granulomas showed typical features of tuberculous granulomas, i.e., central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells, in£ammatory cells and a border of connective tissue. Ziehl-Nielsen stain demonstrated sporadic acid-fast bacilli.

Pathological Changes in Masked Palm Civets Experimentally Infected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus – Symptoms: Infected animals become less aggressive and develop pyrexia, lethargy and diarrhoea and develop multiorgan pathology. – Histopathology: Interstitial pneumonia with edema, neuronal degeneration and neuronophagia, lymphoid follicular depletion in lymph nodes, splenic lymphoid follicular atrophy, hepatic congestion and vacuolar degeneration, kidneys focal hemorrhage, small intestine-mild focal hemorrhages

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus Infection in an Irradiated Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) (Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 67  Vol 47, No 3, May 2008, P. 64-68).  Gross lesions: Skin dryness, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and erythema in the facial area. Microscopic lesions: Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia and chronic dermal inflammation. Perivascular plasma cells and lymphocytes were identified and the dermis showed a background of mucinosis.

Peripheral Edema with Hypoalbuminemia in a Nonhuman Primate Infected with Simian–Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report: clinically, there was slight peripheral edema, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. Histologically, there was membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, the result of immune complex deposition.

Idiopathic New Bone Formation in the Femoral Shafts of a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

A 6.5-y-old cynomolgus monkey. An animal caretaker incidentally found a bone fragment protruding through the skin of the right leg. Radiographically there was one bone fragment in each femur. The fragment consisted of a medullary cavity and bone cortex with incomplete periosteal structure. New bone formation in nonhuman primates has been reported previously, but not with unexplained skin penetration.

HYPERPLASTIC DERMATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACARIASIS IN A SIAMANG (SYMPHALANGUS SYNDACTYLUS), Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 638–641. – Alopecia, flaky skin, and pruritus, with trombidiiform mites identified as Psorobia (formerly Psorergates) sp. near cercopitheci.  Superficial dermal edema and infiltration, with a low to moderate number of lymphocytes and plasma cells around superficial capillaries (Fig. 2). These changes were associated with epidermal pits containing ovoid, organisms with chitinous exoskeletons (Fig. 3). A diagnosis of chronic hyperplastic dermatitis (mange) with intracorneal embedded mites was made.

Capillaria hepatica (syncalodium hepaticum) in primates in a zoological collection in the UK: this is a zoonotic liver nematode of mammals with a worldwide distribution. It had as a direct life cycle. Its primary hosts are rodents. Caused granulomatous hepatitis in this monkey. Ingestion of eggsà larvae hatch in cecumàmigrate to liver and mature to eggsà released after death.

Acute Megakaryocytic Leukaemia (AMKL)-like Disease in a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 212e216. Gross lesions: The liver, kidney and spleen were markedly enlarged and the kidneys had capsular petechiae. Histo:   numerous atypical cells resembling myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and myelofibrosis was present. Atypical cells were also present in the blood vessels of the liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, heart, bladder, adrenal gland and brain. Some neoplastic cells had oval or pleomorphic macronuclei and others were multinucleated. IHC—Positive for megakaryocyte- associated antigens Von Willebrand Factor and CD61-IIIa, but were negative for myeloperoxidase. This monkey was infected with simian retrovirus type D and it is possible that this viral infection was associated with the development of neoplasia. Differential diagnoses for AMKL with myelofibrosis, include Acute Panmyelosis with Myelofibrosis (APMF- multi-lineage myeloid proliferation, no megakaryocyte-related antigens), blastic transformation of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML- clonal proliferation of mature granulocytes) or Idiopathic  Myelofibrosis (IMF- abnormal depostis of collagen in BM).

Naturally Occurring Tyzzer’s Disease in Cotton-top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Vol 57, No 1

February 2007.  transmural, necrotizing typhlocolitis accompanied by myocarditis and hepatitis..

Animal Models for HIV AIDS: A Comparative Review. Vol 57, No 1 February 2007.  Viruses discussed are grouped as causing (1) nonlentiviral immunodeficiency-inducing diseases, (2) naturally occurring pathogenic infections, (3) experimentally induced lentiviral infections, and (4) nonpathogenic lentiviral infections.

Changes in the Titer of Anti–B Virus Antibody in Captive Macaques (Macaca fuscata, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis).  Vol 57, No 1 February 2007.  B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1; BV). -herpesvirus subfamily and usually causes mild or asymptomatic infection in its natural macaque host. However, BV infection in humans usually develops as a fatal central nervous system infection and for this reason BV is classified

as a biosafety level–4 pathogen.

Dermal Melanocytosis in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Vol 57, No 3 June 2007.  the epidermis lacked melanocytes, but the dermis had numerous melanocytes with abundant melanin. Activated melanocytes with well-developed dendrites were distributed throughout the upper part of the dermal layer. Melanocytes were not arranged in clusters, and elastic and collagen fibers in the dermis showed no histological abnormalities.

Increased Production of 11β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 in the Kidney Microsomes of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.). Vol 58, No 2

April 2008.  In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), cortisol circulates at levels much higher than those seen in man and other Old World primates, but squirrel monkeys exhibit no physiologic signs of the mineralocorticoid effects of cortisol.  11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite, cortisone.  Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD2, inactivating mutations in 11β-HSD2, or saturation of the enzyme by high cortisol concentrations

results in inappropriate activation of MR by cortisol and leads to development of hypertension and electrolyte imbalance.

Pathology of Captive Moustached Tamarins (Saguinus mystax).  Vol 58, No 2 April 2008. Colitis cystica profunda (CCP), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis was present in 22 (66.6%) animals, and various degrees of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis occurred in 28 (84.8%) monkeys. In addition, 28 (84.8%) tamarins demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation with mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, possibly as a result of the experimental infections, and peliosis hepatis occurred in 7 (21.2%) animals.

Clinical and Pathologic Features of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) Infected with Aerosolized Yersinia pestis. Vol 58, No 1

February 2008.  The lethal dose of plague in humans is reputedly less than 100 organisms.

Monkey B Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1).  Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1; BV) is an α-herpesvirus that naturally infects conventional populations of macaques. Serious disease due to BV is rare in macaques, but when transmitted to humans, BV has a propensity to invade the central nervous system and has a fatality rate greater than 70% if not treated promptly.

Comparative Pathobiology of Kaposi sarcoma associated Herpesvirus and Related Primate Rhadinoviruses. Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Human herpesvirus 8).  Rhadinoviruses Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 and Ateline herpesvirus 2 have well-described transforming capabilities. Retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus and rhesus rhadinovirus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 17). Molecular analysis of these viruses has elucidated several functionally conserved genes and properties shared with KSHV involved in cellular proliferation, transformation, and immune evasion that facilitate the oncogenic potential of these viruses.

Comparative Pathobiology of Macaque Lymphocryptoviruses. Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. Lymphocryptoviruses (LCVs) have been identified as naturally occurring infections of both Old and New World nonhuman primates. These viruses are closely related to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, Human herpesvirus 4) and share similar genomic organization and biological properties. Nonhuman primate LCVs have the ability to immortalize host cells and express a similar complement of viral lytic and latent genes as those found in EBV.  LCVs have the ability to induce malignant lymphomas in immunodeficient hosts and have been associated with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in cynomolgus macaques undergoing solid organ transplantation.

Polyomaviruses of Nonhuman Primates: Implications for Research. Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. Polyomaviruses are a family of small nonenveloped DNA viruses.  Simian virus 40 (SV40), which causes immunosuppression in Macaques.

Simian Parvoviruses: Biology and Implications for Research. Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. Erythrovirus in the family Parvoviridae are most closely related to the human virus B19. cynomolgus, rhesus, and pigtailed macaques.  All of the primate erythroviruses have a predilection for erythroid precursors. Infection is usually clinically silent. Disease from SPV is associated with immunosuppression due to infection with various retroviruses (SIV, simian retrovirus, and simian–human immunodeficiency virus).

Simian Varicella in Old World Monkeys. Vol 58, No 1 February 2008. Natural erythematous disease in Old World monkeys.  SVV is closely related to varicella–zoster virus, the causative agent of human varicella and herpes zoster. Clinical signs of simian varicella include fever, vesicular skin rash, and hepatitis. SVV establishes a lifelong latent infection in neural ganglia.

Taxus sp. intoxication in three Francois’ langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:221–224 (2007).  Taxine alkaloids were detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the gastric contents.  Taxine produces an immediate cardiotoxic effect by inducing conduction abnormalities and cardiac arrest, with few premonitory signs. The toxic component, taxine B, inhibits both calcium and sodium transport across the cell membrane of the myocardial cells.

Round Cell Variant of Myxoid Liposarcoma in a Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata).  Vet Pathol 44:229–232 (2007).  Reddish tan to white nodules, ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter, were noted throughout the omentum and retroperitoneum.  Round to polyhedral cells, which had round, often eccentric nuclei and abundant eosinophilic granular and microvacuolated cytoplasm; Oil red O staining demonstrated large numbers of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm.

A Mixed Epithelial and Stromal Tumor of the Kidney in a Ringtail Lemur (Lemur catta). Vet Pathol 44:243–246 (2007).  The mesenchymal cells were arranged in fascicles around cysts lined by a well-differentiated epithelium.

Uterine Infarctions in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  Vet Pathol 44:309–313 (2007). uterine infarction is an uncommon finding in cynomolgus monkeys and may occur secondary to a severe systemic illness, predisposing to DIC.

Epizootic of Tularemia in an Outdoor Housed Group of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol 44:327–334 (2007).  Pathologic findings were similar in all monkeys that died and resembled the clinical picture of the human disease, including an ulceroglandular syndrome with local lymphadenopathy, gingivostomatitis, and systemic spread, with manifestations such as subacute necrotizing hepatitis, granulomatous splenitis, and Pneumonia.

Chronic Polymyositis Associated with Disseminated Sarcocystosis in a Captive-born Rhesus Macaque. Vet Pathol 44:695–699 (2007).  diffuse pale streaking of the trunk, lumbar, and limb muscles were noted macroscopically. On histology, numerous elongated cysts that contained crescent shaped basophilic spores were found in the fibers of skeletal muscles. Scattered affected myofibers were degenerate and accompanied by eosinophilic-to-granulomatous inflammation.

Pathology of Inhalational Anthrax Infection in the African Green Monkey. Vet Pathol 44:716–721 (2007).  Frequent gross lesions noted in the AGM were hemorrhage and edema in the lung, mediastinum, and mediastinal lymph nodes; pleural and pericardial effusions; meningitis; and gastrointestinal congestion and hemorrhage. Histopathologic findings included necrohemorrhagic lymphadenitis of mediastinal, axillary, inguinal, and mesenteric lymph nodes; mediastinal edema; necrotizing splenitis; meningitis; and congestion, hemorrhage, and edema of the lung, mesentery, mesenteric lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and gonads.

Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (AMKL)-like Disease in a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) A 5-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with a clinical history of bleeding tendency, severe anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated serum concentration of liver-related enzymes.  Gross: Ecchymotic hemorrhages were present on the left eyelid and forehead. The liver, kidney and spleen were markedly enlarged and the kidneys had capsular petechiae.  Microscopic: Myeloid-like cells in bone marrow, with myelofibrosis. Atypical cells were also present in the blood vessels of the liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, heart, bladder, adrenal gland and brain. Rare macronuclei and multinucleated cells noted.  Immunohistochemistry: The Von Willebrand Factor and CD61-IIIa positive; myeloperoxidase negative. This monkey was infected with simian retrovirus type D and it is possible that this viral infection was associated with the development of neoplasia.

Transthyretin Amyloidosis and Two Other Aging-Related Amyloidoses in an Aged Vervet Monkey Vet Path 2008 Jan: Amyloid consisting of transthyretin was deposited in heart wall and external tunica of arterioles. The amyloid was also deposited in the stroma and arterioles of other systemic organs except the liver and spleen. A second amyloid consisting of amyloid β protein was in senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the cerebral cortex. A third amyloid consisting of islet amyloid polypeptide was deposited in islets of the pancreas. Apolipoprotein E and amyloid P component colocalized with the 3 amyloids. Direct fast scarlet and Congo red stained the hyaline deposits; however, DFS showed less nonspecific background than did Congo red but intensity of birefringence was stronger with Congo red than with DFS

Malignant Nephroblastoma in a Common Marmoset Vet Path 2008 Jan: Malignant nephroblastoma, also referred to as adenomyosarcoma or Wilms’ tumor, is a renal neoplasia arising from metanephric blastema, occurring in children under 10 years of age. Usually express several lines of differentiation, including blastemal, epithelial, and stromal cells; It is a common neoplasm in swine, chickens and represents a common renal tumor of rats, can be experimentally induced by prenatal exposure to the carcinogen N-ethylnitrosouria.

Multisystemic Abscesses in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae—Identification of the Hypermucoviscosity Phenotype Vet Path 2008 Mar: Abscesses in abdomen, lungs, cerebellum, and skin. Abdominal abscesses associated with adhesions entrapped loops of bowel, forming palpable masses.

Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid-like Malformation (CCCM) in a Cynomolgus Monkey Vet Path 2008 Mar: CCCM is a rare fetal developmental abnormality of the lung chr by abnormal development of terminal respiratory structures, resulting in an adenomatoid proliferation of bronchiolar elements and cyst formation

Non-gestational Malignant Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor of the Ovary in a 4-Year-Old Rhesus Monkey Vet Path 2008 May: The  tumor  was  histologically  identified  as  predominantly  composed of intermediate trophoblastic  cells, without prominent  hemorrhages  and  the classic  bilaminar  pattern of cyto-  and syncytiotrophoblastic cells characteristic of choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence  of placental  lactogen  hormone in  many  tumor  cells  and chorionic  gonadotropin  in  a  few multinucleated   cells consistent   with   syncytiotrophoblastic   differentiation. Malignant trophoblastic tumors can be classified as choriocarcinoma,  epithelioid  trophoblastic  tumor,  or placental   site   trophoblastic   tumor. These   tumors usually  occur  during  or  after  gestation,  but  may  also rarely   develop   from   germ   cells   in   the   absence   of pregnancy. Choriocarcinoma,  composed  of bilaminar cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, can be found as a component of a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary, but pure nongestational choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm in humans. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is   made   of   intermediate   trophoblastic   cells resembling  those  of  chorion  laeve,  mimics  carcinoma, and  was  initially  thought  to  result  from  incomplete response of choriocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Placental site trophoblastic tumor is derived from intermediatetrophoblastic cells of the placental bed, and nongestational  forms  have  been  reported  in  the  testis.

Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma with Smooth Muscle Proliferation in a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Vet Path 2008 May): various sizes of multilocular cystic glands lined by a single layer of mucin-filled epithelium. Each of these cystic glands was surrounded by a large amount of solid  fibrous  stroma  resembling  smooth  muscle.  positive for a- smooth muscle actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.  Ultrastructurally, the glandular epithelium had  numerous mucinous secretory  granules  and  microvilli.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Endometrial Hyperplasia in a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).  Vet Pathol 45:512–515 (2008). On postmortem examination,  the  uterus  was  moderately  enlarged,  with  an  eccentric  lumen  and  a broad-based endometrial polyp that consisted of complex glandular hyperplasia with atypia. Both ovaries contained many 2- to 3-mm follicles, without any corpora lutea. A diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia.  This  syndrome is commonly associated with insulin resistance and associated hyperinsulinemia, luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion,  abdominal  obesity, type  2  diabetes  mellitus, atherosclerosis,  and  endometrial  carcinoma.

Neuropathologic Findings in an Aged Albino Gorilla.  Vet Pathol 45:531–537 (2008). numerous corpora amylacea in some brain areas, especially the substantia  nigra,  and  large  numbers  of  axonal  spheroids  associated  with iron accumulation  in  the internal  globus  pallidus.  Sequencing  of  the  gorilla  PANK2  gene  failed  to  detect  any  mutation.  The clinical,  neuropathologic,  and  genetic  findings  in  this  gorilla  point  to  an age-related  pallido-nigral degeneration that presented with pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PKAN)-like neurologic deficits.

Diagnostic Exercise: Papulovesicular Dermatitis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).  Vet Pathol 45:592–594 (2008). Eleven rhesus monkeys developed multifocal erythematous and a vesicular rash. Findings were of vesicular dermatitis and widespread multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis of the lungs and other viscera, with intralesional intranuclear inclusions. Simian varicella virus was identified as the cause by polymerase chain reaction analysis and serologic testing.

Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus Type 1-associated B-cell Nasal Lymphoma in SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques.  Vet Pathol 45:914–921 (2008). Rhesus LCV (rhLCV), the rhesus viral homolog of EBV, has been cloned and is associated with B-cell lymphomas in immunosuppressed rhesus macaques.  Epstein-Barr  virus  (EBV)  is  a  worldwide  endemic  gamma  herpesvirus  of  the  genus Lymphocryptovirus  (LCV).  These  tumors  demonstrate  comparable  viral athogenesis with EBV-induced nasal lymphomas in HIV-positive people.

Biphasic Malignant Testicular Sex Cord–Stromal Tumor in a Cotton-top Tamarin Saguinus oedipus) with Review of the Literature. Vet Pathol 45:922–927 (2008). biphasic sex cord–stromal tumor, with one region resembling Sertoli- cell tumor and one region resembling granulosa-cell tumor, with extensive microfollicular pattern and many Call-Exner bodies. Metastases to  abdominal displaced  organs,  was  highly  infiltrative,  and  extended  into  the paravertebral musculature with lysis of vertebral bone lymph node and lung were also resent. Histologic examination of the abdominal tumor showed multifocal formation of Call-Exner bodies in an otherwise highly dedifferentiated population. Positive immunolabeling for alpha inhibin confirmed the sex cord–stromal origin of the abdominal and paravertebral tumor masses. This case has similarities to malignant testicular granulosa-cell tumor of humans.

Obstructive Protein Cast Nephropathy in Cynomolgus Monkeys Treated with Small Organic Molecules.  Vet Pathol 45:945–948 (2008). Species specific- nephropathy developed when treated with different therapeutic candidates having a common carboxylic acid moiety. Light  microscopic  changes  consisted  of intratubular  cast formation,  tubular  dilatation,  interstitial inflammation,  and  expansion  of  the  medullary  interstitium. Tubular  cast  material  was  identified  as Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and, on ultrastructure, crystalloid material was present in vacuoles of tubular epithelium. It is hypothesized that microcrystal formation in the urinary tubular spaces induces aggregation of THP protein and cast formation in monkeys.

Generalized tularemia in a vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) and a patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in a zoo.  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:384–387 (2009). Macroscopic lesions in each animal included disseminated, grayish-white foci in the lungs, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and kidney. All focal lesions were characterized microscopically as purulent to pyogranulomatous to granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strains were isolated.

Ductal Plate Malformation in a Nonhuman Primate: Fetal ductal plate malformations represent disruption or failure of the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during fetal development of the liver that results in expansion of portal areas by an excess of embryonic bile ducts and fibrous tissue. Cases reported in animals: Caroli’s disease (young dogs), biliary atresia (dog, foal), Caroli syndrome  (rat), and congenital hepatic fibrosis (calf). In this report spindle cells dispersed within collagen, up to 200 µm in width, in portal areas. A diagnosis of congenital hepatic fibrosis with von Meyenburg complexes, was made.

Idiopathic Chondrolysis Condition in Two Young, Wild-caught Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) Reared in Captivity: Idioapathic chondrolysis is seen in adolescent African females, at hip joint, mostly unilateral. Chr by loss and erosion of articular cartilage in femur and acetabulum, synovial thickening, osteoporosis. Similar findings were seen in two monkeys.

Vasoformative Disorder, Resembling Littoral Cell Angioma, of the Spleen in a Geriatric Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata). Vet Pathol 46:520–525 (2009). The enlarged spleen

consisted of neoplastic proliferation of anastomosing vascular channels resembling morphologic structures of red pulp sinuses; occasionally, papillary fronds were seen in dilated channels. Immunohistochemically, the lining cells reacted to both endothelial cell (von Willebrand factor) and macrophage (macrophage scavenger  receptor  class  A)  markers,  indicating  features  of  littoral  cells  of  the  spleen. Littoral cells)-“specialized endothelial cells that line the splenic sinuses.2 These specialized sinus endothelial cells normally lie on a fenestrated basement membrane and are separated by tight junctional complexes. Consistent with the blood filtration function of the splenic sinuses, littoral cells display an endothelial and histiocytic immunophenotype, and in contrast to conventional endothelial cells, they are negative for CD34.

Peripheral Edema with Hypoalbuminemia in a Nonhuman Primate Infected with Simian–Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report: clinically, there was slight peripheral edema, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria, consistent with nephrotic syndrome. Histologically, there was membrano- proliferative glomerulonephritis, the result of immune complex deposition.

Pheochromocytoma in Six New World Primates.  Vet Pathol 46:662–666 (2009). Unilateral (4/6) or bilateral (1/6) adrenal or extra-adrenal (1/6) pheochromocytoma by Chromogranin A positive.  No invasion or metastasis, these are benign.  All 6 primates had myocardial fibrosis, and some had arteriosclerosis.

Pathology of Inhalational Francisella tularensis spp. tularensis SCHU S4 Infection in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).  Vet Pathol 46:698–706 (2009). heart, mediastinum, diaphragm, liver, urinary bladder, urethra, and mesentery. Necrotizing  vasculitis of  blood  vessels  within  a pulmonary  lesion. Surrounding parenchyma is obscured by necrosis, inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage.  Ultrastructurally, bacteria were present within cytoplasmic vacuoles of alveolar macrophages, many of which were degenerate.

Fatal poxvirus outbreak in a colony of New World monkeys (NWM). pp212-18. March 2006  MT

–  Pox virus uncommon in NHP

–  Marmosets & tamarins w/epizootic; erosive-ulcerative lesions of oral mucous membranes, hemorrhagic lesions on skin

all over, but MAINLY face, scrotum, soles, palms; papules & vesicles; necrotizing lymphadenitis

–  ICIB in epithelial cells; no ICIB in mucosal lesions; Guarnieri bodies = large ICIB in epithelia, caused by infection with vaccinia or variola (smallpox)

sequenced orthopox virus, probably cowpox (vaccinia) virus; EM – ovoid to brick-shaped, w/pale central core

Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of an undifferentiated renal tubular carcinoma in a juvenile olive baboon (Papio anubis).  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:535–539 (2009). Microscopically, elongated and irregular tubules were lined by 2 or more layers of atypical epithelial cells. Positive for cytokeratin, vimentin, and S-100 protein and negative for a-actin and desmin. Positive nuclear staining for Ki-67 was observed. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an undifferentiated renal tubular carcinoma.

Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma in the hind leg of a Taiwanese macaque (Macaca cyclopis).  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:564–567 (2009). Microscopically, the mass was highly cellular and composed of round to spindle cells with frequent rhabdoid cells characterized by abundant eosinophilic  glassy  cytoplasmic  inclusions and  large,  bizarre  nuclei.  Phosphotungstic  acid hematoxylin  staining  failed  to  reveal  distinct  cross-striations  within  the  neoplastic  cells.  Neoplastic  cells

were  strongly  positive  for smooth  muscle  actin  and  vimentin but  were negative  for  sarcomeric  actin, myoglobin,  desmin,  cytokeratin,  S100,  and  lysozyme. The  gross,  microscopic,  and  immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma.

Trichomonad Gastritis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: Two histopathologic manifestations of gastritis were observed: seven cases of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with trichomonad trophozoites within lumens of gastric glands and four cases of necrosuppurative gastritis containing intralesional periodic acid–Schiff-positive protozoa. protozoa were 4–35 µm in diameter and round to tear-shaped. Tritrichomonas can be a significant cofactor in the development of necrosuppurative gastritis in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

Systemic AA Amyloidosis in the Common Marmoset: Approximately 17% of marmosets had amyloid deposits in one or more organs, including the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, and intestine. The amyloid composed of serum amyloid A (SAA)–related protein. No significant pathologic differences in animals with amyloid versus those without; furthermore, the serum SAA concentrations in the two groups were comparable.

Ovarian Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor in a Cynomolgus Monkey: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is an unusual type of trophoblastic tumor, with features resembling carcinoma. Lobulated mass replacing the left ovary and several nodules in lungs. Histo: nests of epithelioid cells, with intermingled multinucleate tumor cells consistent with syncytiotrophoblasts and moderate amount of eosinophilic, hyaline-like material. IHC= cytokeratins and inhibin-  positive, but occasionally positive for hCG whereas placental alkaline phosphatase was always negative. Choriocarcinoma are diffusely positive for cytokeratins and bHCG, but only syncytiotrophoblastic tumor cells are positive for inhibin- .

Ovarian Choriocarcinoma in a Rhesus Monkey Associated with Elevated Serum Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: mass in the right ovary with metastases to the adjacent mesentery and lungs. The histo and IHC were consistent with the choriocarcinoma. Neoplastic cell types included cytotrophoblast (positive for cytokeratin), syncytiotrophoblast (positive for human chorionic gonadotropin), and extravillous trophoblast (positive for human placental lactogen). The monkey had elevated serum levels of chorionic gonadotropin.

KIT-positive Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a 22-year-old Male Chimpanzee: 2-cm intramural tumor present in the stomach; Histo: the mass was composed of spindle to polygonal epithelioid cells arranged in interlacing streams, bundles, and nodular whorls IHC: cells were diffusely positive for KIT and CD34, focally positive for  -sMA, and negative for muscle specific actin, desmin, S-100 protein, synaptophysin, and GFAP.

Intestinal Stromal Tumors in a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected, Simian Retrovirus-2 Negative Rhesus Macaque: Intra-abdominal fibromatosis is an uncommon tumor that primarily affects the mesentery or retroperitoneum but may extend into, or even arise from the intestinal wall, mimicking a primary gastrointestinal neoplasm. Retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) is one of several mesenchymoproliferative disorders (MPD) that have been described in macaques with simian-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) associated with simian retrovirus type-D (SRV-2) infection. Submucosa of the distal colon and rectum contained five large, well-circumscribed, firm masses, composed of bundles of spindeloid cells. PCR of tumor and spleen revealed presence of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus, the macaque homologue of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus-8). Spindeloid cells were positive for vimentin and CD117 but were negative for CD31, CD68, desmin, and SMA, hence Dx of GIST.

Collagenofibrotic Glomerulonephropathy in a Cynomolgus Macaque: Collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy (CFGN) is characterized by the deposition of type III collagen within the mesangial matrix and the absence of mesangial cell proliferation. Clinically, the animal was shown to have severe systemic edema along with hypoproteinemia. At necropsy, the kidneys were swollen and pale. The glomerular lesions were characterized by massive diffuse and global accumulation of fibrous materials in the mesangial areas. The fibrous materials was congo red, SMA, PAS negative and positive with Trichrome and confirmed by the IHC and EM to consist mainly of randomly arranged, curve-shaped, twisted, and entwined type III collagen.

Spontaneous Cardiomyopathy in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis). Toxicologic Pathology, 37: 814-818, 2009. Apical to mid-ventricular myocardium to subendocardium  :  Foci of cardiomyocyte disarray with cytoplasmic pallor to stippling and karyomegaly, vacuolization of the perimyseal connective tissue, a meshwork of fibrous tissue that concentrated around medium-sized blood vessels and dissected between or less often replaced affected cardiomyocytes; and a minimal, predominantly macrophage infiltrate.  The disrupted cardiomyocytes were immunoreactive to desmin and troponin-I antibodies and had a normal cross-striation pattern by PTAH, indicating the chronic cardiomyopathy was not associated with active cardiomyocyte damage.  The features were reminiscent of chronic catecholamine-induced experimental cardiomyopathy and stress cardiomyopathy in monkeys and humans, respectively.

Histologic and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Pheochromocytoma in 6 Cotton-top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  Vet Pathol 46:1221–1229 (2009). On immunohistochemical examination, 6 of 6 of the cases (100%) stained positively for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, N-CAM (or CD56), and protein gene product 9.5. None of the cases stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein.

Adenomyofibroma of the fimbria in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:892–894 (2009). A 20-year-old female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) was presented for an end-of-study necropsy. At necropsy, a 2 cm 3 1.5 cm 3 1 cm, butterfly-shaped, multilobulated mass extended off the right uterine tube fimbria. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, plump, finger-like projections lined primarily by simple columnar ciliated epithelium. The interstitium contained a proliferation of smooth muscle stromal cells admixed with varying amounts of collagen. A diagnosis of adenomyofibroma of the fimbria was made. This benign neoplasm should be considered as a differential diagnosis for masses arising from the fallopian tube in old-world macaques.

Helicobacter lesions in cynomolgus monkeys- VP 36: 1-13

An Epizootic of Lymphoplasmacytic Gastritis Attributed to Helicobacter pyloriInfection in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) lymphoplasmacytic gastritis. caused by Helicobacter pylori. Coincident with accentuated infiltrates were gastric gland epithelial hyperplasia, reduction in mucin content of surface and gland epithelia, and comparatively minor infiltrates of neutrophils in superficial lamina propria and gastric glands.

Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs) were present in fundic glands of all 63 monkeys

Bacterial meningitis in nonhuman primates- Bennet- Nonhuman Primates

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Listeria monocytogenes

E coli

Other systemic bacteria not necessarily associated with meningitis- Staphylococcus aureus, PSeudomonas aeruginosa

Nocardia asteroides

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