Bovine


Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Associated with Bovine Papillomavirus Type-2 (First report of such tumor in animals)Multifocal mucosal nodules and hemorrhage.  Lymphoepithelioma carcinomas are recognized by syncytial cells and Cytokeratin +, with prominent lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrates. Brakcen fern and BPV-2 act in concert to produce neoplasms in the bladder including papillary carcinomas and carcinoma in situ as well as the title neoplasm.

Contact dermatitis in dairy cattle caused by calcium cyanamide. Calcium cyanimide in antibacterial in foot baths. Gross Lesions- multifocal alopecia, crusting, allergic dermatitic, contact dermatitis.  Acanthosis, necrosis, eosinophils, neutrophils, vesicles. May cause granulomatous lymphadenitis similar to hairy vetch toxicosis.

Outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infection in a Swedish dairy herd

During screening, S. Typhimurium was isolated in dairy cattle, and S. Thompson in heifers in pasture. Treatment cleared Typhimurium, and decreased Thompson until prevalence increased in cows released to pasture. First record of Thompson in dairy cattle. Herd slaughtered to eradicate infection. Origin unknown.

Isolation of Porphyromonas levii from vaginal samples from cows in herds negative for bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV): This pigmented Gram negative bacterium is part of ruminal microflora and associated with BNVV. The disease is chr by deterioration of normal vaginal injuries caused by calving to necrotic lesions, primarily in dairy heifers during the first week after calving. According to this paper P levii was isolated in Heifers without BNVV.

Encephalomyelitis of Cattle Caused by Akabane Virus in Southern Japan in 2006. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 187e193. Limb weakness and circling. Microscopic Histologic lesions- Cerebrum non-suppurative encephalitis with perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes and macrophages and diffuse gliosis. Brainstem-Necrosis of neurons with vacuolation of the neuropil was present in the brainstem. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Infection was believed post-partum due to the lack of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly.

Expression of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules in Chronic Pulmonary Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Cattle. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 198e202. Pulmonary inflammation often results in expression of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) by both professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs; histiocytes and lymphocytes) and non-professional APCs (respiratory epithelium and endothelium). In  M. bovis  infections causing necrosuppurative lesions, there is little MHC II expression, but in cases of catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia, the  MHC II expression was significantly increased.

Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Bacteriological Study of Tissues and Milk of Cows and Fetuses Experimentally Infected with Brucella abortus

J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 149e157

The most significant lesions were necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and lymphohistiocytic mastitis in cows, and fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinous pericarditis andbronchopneumonia in aborted fetuses. B. abortus was isolated more frequently from milk samples than from mammary tissues, and milk samples from cows with mastitis were often infected.

Nephrotic syndrome due to glomerulopathy in an Irish dairy cow

February 7, 2009 | the VETERINARY RECORD

Nephrotic syndrome, a clinical entity characterised by proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema and hypercholesterolaemia, results from increased glomerular permeability due to glomerular injury. In cattle, nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by renal amyloidosis and rarely by glomerulopathy.

Unusual presentation of malignant catarrhal fever involving neurological disease in young calves

the VETERINARY RECORD | February 21, 2009

The most common clinical manifestation of bovine MCF is the head and eye form, which is characterised by a persistent high fever, bilateral corneal opacity, ocular discharge, profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge, ulcerative stomatitis, enlargement of the lymph nodes and haematuria.

TABLE 1: Histological findings in four calves with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

1: Moderate angiocentric, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis

2: CNS histopathology as described in calf 2

3: Cerebellar fibrinous and non-suppurative meningitis

4: Marked lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis

5: CNS histopathology as described in calf 2

6: Marked interstitial nephritis and lymphoplasmacytic cystitis

7: Moderate portal hepatitis and mild myocarditis

8: Angiocentric lymphocytic meningitis and panencephalitis

9: Subacute renal necrotising arteritis and marked lymphocytic perivascular interstitital nephritis

10: Lymphoplasmacytic cystitis with intraepithelial lymphocytes

11: Mild lymphocytic portal hepatitis

Molecular and antigenic characterization of a Mycoplasma bovis strain causing an outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctivitis. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:41–51 (2006). An unusually high incidence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis followed by pneumonia and arthritis was observed in beef calves of a managed herd. NoMoraxella spp. or bacteria other than Mycoplasma spp. were obtained from conjunctival and nasal swabs.

Histochemical and immunohistochemical evidence of a bacterium associated with lesions of epizootic bovine abortion. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:76–80 (2006) : Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA), a tick-transmitted disease resulting in late-term abortion or premature calving. The etiologic agent is susceptible to antibiotics and identification of a unique 16S deltaproteobacterial rDNA gene sequence in 90% of thymus tissues from aborted fetuses have supported the role of a bacterial infection as the cause of EBA. A modified Steiner silver stain revealed small numbers of intracytoplasmic bacterial rods. Immunohistochemicalstaining was positive for histiocytic cells in the thymus and in many organs with inflammatory lesions.

A devastating outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a bison feedlot. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:119–123 (2006).  Diagnosis was made by detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 (sheep-associated MCF virus) DNA in tissues or peripheral blood by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and by histological examination of tissue lesions. Greater susceptibility of bison than beef cattle to MCF, and the lack of horizontal transmission from clinically affected bison to herdmates.

Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis–associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:29–40 (2006). Cranioventral bronchopneumonia with multiple foci of caseous necrosis. Mycoplasma bovis was consistently identified in these lesions, but also commonly in healthy lungs and those with pneumonia of other causes. Focal lesions of coagulation necrosis, typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, were often infected with both Mannheimia haemolytica and M. bovis. Arthritis was present in 25 of 54 (46%) calves with M. bovis pneumonia, and all calves with arthritis had pneumonia. BVDV infection was more common in calves with lesions of bacterial.

Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:18–28 (2006). IN order of prevalence– Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida(19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%).

Accidental intra-auricular artery injection of ceftiofur in two beef steers. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:125–128 (2007). Oil-based formulation of ceftiofurdied within 5 minutes of injection. Notable pathologic findings included distention and obstruction of cerebral and cerebellar arteries by a whitish tan material and hemorrhages within meningeal spaces, the choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Lipid material was identified within cerebral blood vessels in frozen sections stained with oil red O. This report describes an unusual case of brain ischemia in beef cattle.

Muscular pseudohypertrophy (steatosis) in a bovine fetus. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:198–201 (2007). Muscular pseudohypertrophy was diagnosed in thecervical musculature of a full-term crossbred Simmental fetus delivered by fetotomy. The neck musculature of the fetus was markedly deformed by 23 cm and 18 cm in diameter, firm, spherical masses that consisted of enlarged and pale left splenius and right serratus ventralis cervicis muscle, respectively, covered by intact skin. Additionally, lipomatous masses were present within the cervical vertebral canal, compressing the spinal cord. Microscopically, the prominent muscular enlargement was due to massive adipose and fibrous connective tissue replacement of atrophic muscle. Focal myelodysplasia and astrocytosis affecting the grey matter was detected in the mid-cervical region of the spinal cord, accompanied by degeneration in the ascending and descending tracts of the remaining cord segments. Abnormal spinal cord development as a result of severe spinal cord compression by the lipomatous masses within the spinal canal leading to replacement of muscle by fat and fibrous tissue was considered to be the cause of the muscular malformation in this fetus.

Arsenic and metaldehyde toxicosis in a beef herd. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:212–215 (2007). Over a 12-day period, 13 animals in a herd of 110 beef cattle developed ataxia with profound muscle fasciculations progressing to recumbency. A toxic level of arsenic (6.18 ppm) was detected in the kidney, and metaldehyde was detected in the liver, consistent with a discontinued molluscicidal product.

Characterization of rupture of abdominal artery aneurysm in dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:273–278 (2007).  Marked hemoabdomen, marked dilation and rupture of the abdominal aorta or one of its branches, including the mesenteric, left gastric, celiac artery, right ruminal artery, or left ruminal artery. Histologically, the tunica media was thin and irregular in width with disrupted, fragmented, and coiled elastin. There was hyperplasia of the tunica intima with adjacent smooth-muscle hyperplasia.

Sodium fluoride/copper naphthenate toxicosis in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:305–308 (2007). ingestion of a wood preservative compoundcontaining sodium fluoride and copper naphthenate. perirenal edema, pale kidneys, and forestomach ulceration.  renal cortical tubular necrosis.

Tympany, acidosis, and mural emphysema of the stomach in calves: report of cases and experimental induction. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:392–395 (2007). neonatal calves with a peracute syndrome of abdominal distention, diarrhea, dehydration, shock, and death revealed abomasal tympany, marked edema, hemorrhage, and emphysema of ruminal and abomasal walls and histopathologic lesions characteristic of forestomach acidosis. Rather, it is proposed that the natural occurrence of disease requires a quantity of highly fermentable substrate (starch, glucose, lactose, etc.) and a bacterial flora that is capable of rapidly fermenting that particular substrate with a resultant production of gas and acid.

Precursor B-1 B cell lymphoma in a newborn calf. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:447–450 (2007).  A newborn Holstein female calf had neoplastic lesions in theskin and within the thoracic and abdominal cavities but not in the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, or most lymph nodes. Because the tumor cells were positive for CD79a (B cell marker), CD5 (B-1 cell marker) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (marker for immature lymphoid precursors), a diagnosis of precursor B-1 B cell lymphoma was made. The diagnosis was strongly supported by the fact that B-1 cells can develop in the fetus, unlike B-2 cells, which are produced after birth. The lymphoma was distinct from the typical calf form of lymphoma of B-2 cell origin, which does not express CD5and is characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy and involvement of the bone marrow, blood and spleen.

Differentiation of Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov. from other coccoid moraxellae by the use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis of amplified DNA. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:532–534 (2007). Moraxella ovis was historically the only coccoid Moraxella identified in cultures of ocular fluid from cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and could be morphologically and biochemically differentiated fromMoraxella bovis. Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov. is a recently characterized Moraxella isolated from ulcerated eyes of calves with IBK in northern Californiain 2002. affected animals exhibit corneal ulceration leading to corneal scarring. Pathogenic proteins of M. bovis include pilin that enable the organism to attach to corneal epithelial cells and a pore-forming cytotoxin (cytolysin; hemolysin) that lyses corneal epithelial cells and host neutrophils resulting in a release of neutrophil-derived degradative enzymes into corneal stroma.

Evaluation of the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis (Summer Pheasants Eye) in calves. The Holstein calves had transient, mild cardiac abnormalities during the feeding trial. Mild, transient gastrointestinal and cardiac signs were noted in the preruminating calves. No gross or microscopic lesions were seen on necropsies performed at the end of the study. Based on the results of this study, cattle do not appear to be as susceptible to toxicosis from A. aestivalisas other species, such as horses and pigs.

Diagnostic evidence of Staphylococcus warneri as a possible cause of bovine abortion. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:694–696 (2007). Microscopic evaluation of fetal tissue sections showed extensive necrotizing lesions of the tongue, lung, and placenta in which there were numerous coccoid shaped gram-positive bacteria with morphology consistent with Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus warneri was isolated in pure culture from the lung, liver, and stomach contents, whereas the placenta yielded S. warneri and a number of contaminants.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:2–10 (2008). The differences included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrPres bands, affinity to the N-terminus–specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE.

Investigation into the effectiveness of pooled fecal samples for detectionof verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:21–27 (2008). Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) cause human disease outbreaks in the United Kingdom every year . Symptoms range from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can be fatal especially for very young children.

Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.  J Vet Diagn Invest 20:28–32 (2008). Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is included in group 2a together with mouse hepatitis virus, sialodacryoadenitis virus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, human enteric coronavirus 4408,6 the newly recognized HCoV-HKU1, canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), giraffe coronavirus,and alpaca coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus was first identified as the agent of severe diarrhea in neonatal calves (neonatal calf diarrhea), as well as in adult cattle (winter dysentery).  At postmortem examination, severe signs of acute rhinotracheitis were observed, whereas lungs did not show remarkable lesions.

Comparison of bacterial culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in culled dairy cows .  J Vet Diagn Invest 20:51–57 (2008).  IHC and acid fast is better than culture.

Vitamin E and selenium concentrations in month-old beef calves.  J Vet Diagn Invest 20:86–89 (2008). Calf vitamin E concentrations were consistently lower than cow vitamin E concentrations, and many values would be considered deficient.

Streptococcus dysgalactiae cellulitis and toxic shock–like syndrome in a Brown Swiss cow.  J Vet Diagn Invest 20:99–103 (2008). severe cellulitiscaused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, bronchopneumonia, and lesions of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the kidneys.  Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystemic disease characterized by rapid onset of fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure, which often leads to death. Severe streptococcal cellulitis associated with septicemia or toxic shock syndrome is rare, especially in veterinary medicine, but outbreaks due to Streptococcus canis have been described in dogs and cats, and Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were respectively cultured from a bottlenose dolphin and a kitten with cellulitis and septicemia. Cellulitis has rarely been described in the bovine species. In this species, it is often associated with Clostridium spp. (malignant edema, blackleg) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes.

Encephalitis in aborted bovine fetuses associated with Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:297–303 (2008). histologic lesions that consisted of glial nodules and variable degrees of mononuclear inflammation, microhemorrhage, neuronal necrosis, and cerebral cortical cavitation.  There was positive staining of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells for BHV-1.  BHV-1 was found by PCR.  The neurologic histopathology attributed to BHV-1 infection in these cases overlaps with the neurologic lesions produced by Neospora caninum, a common etiologic agent of bovine abortion.

Neurological disease in cattle in southern Brazil associated with Bovine herpesvirus infection (BHV-1 and BHV-5).  J Vet Diagn Invest 20:346–349 (2008). Major clinical signs included excessive salivation, nasal and ocular discharge, circling, recumbency, depression, incoordination, grinding of teeth, and paddling movements. Necropsy findings in 10 of 22 cattle included hyperemia and softening of the rostral portions of the telencephalic cortex, with flattening of gyri, and malacia. Cattle in 10 cases did not show any gross lesions. Histological examination in most cases revealed nonsuppurative and necrotizing meningoencephalitis with acute neuronal necrosis, edema, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons, and infiltration of gitter cells. Seven isolates were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 5, and 4 were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 1.

An outbreak of chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome caused by Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot bison (Bison bison). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:369–371 (2008). caseonecrotic pneumonia; polyarthritis; and laryngitis. Same as in Cattle.

Evaluation of the pathogenic potential of cervid adenovirus in calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:33–37 (2008). A novel adenovirus was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that caused high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in 17 counties of central and northern California in 1993 and 1994.Since first identified in 1993, the deer adenovirus (Odocoileus adenovirus; OdAdV) has been diagnosed as the cause of death in moose (Alces alces) in Canada,white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Iowa, and deer and/or moose in Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (Williams, Bildfell, Cornish, Drew; personal communication) and has been diagnosed yearly in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in California (Woods, personal observation). Infected animals develop systemic vasculitis resulting in pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy (systemic infection), necrotizing lesions confined to the upper alimentary tract (localized infection), or both.  Lesions of the localized infection in deer (stomatitis) can be strikingly similar to lesions caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Fatal Ulcerative and Hemorrhagic Typhlocolitis in a Pregnant Heifer Associated with Natural Bovine Enterovirus Type-1 Infection.  Vet Pathol 44:110–115 (2007). mucosal hemorrhage and ulceration were observed in the spiral colon and cecum.  nonenveloped virus.

In vivo Endothelial Cell Infection by Anaplasma marginale.  Vet Pathol 44:116–118 (2007). co-localizes with the endothelial cell marker, von Willebrand factor, in tissue sections from an experimentally inoculated calf. The results indicate that A marginale infection includes endothelial cells

Chondrodysplastic Calves in Northeast Victoria.  Vet Pathol 44:342–354 (2007). Calves showed variable disproportionate dwarfism without arthrogryposis. Long bones were shortened and showed axial rotation. Articular surfaces were distorted with misshapen weight-bearing surfaces associated with variable thickness of articular cartilage. Physes were distorted and variable in thickness with occasional foci of complete closure. The major histologic abnormality in the physes wasdisorderly development of the zones of cartilage hypertrophy, with reduced number and irregular arrangement of hypertrophic chondrocytes; similar less severe changes were present in the zones of cartilage proliferation. Histochemical staining of the cartilage matrix was variable in intensity, and there was evidence of abnormal resorption of cartilage matrix at the level of the primary spongiosa. Osteoid formation and subsequent bone remodeling seemed unaffected, and diaphyseal cortical bone appeared normal at the gross and light microscopic level. No infectious agents were identified, and other known causes for chondrodysplasia in calves were excluded. The most likely cause for the syndrome was considered to be congenital manganese deficiency.

Distribution and Activation of T-lymphocyte Subsets in Tuberculous Bovine Lymph-node Granulomas*. Vet Pathol 44:366–372 (2007). In the majority of stage I/II lesions, CD8+ and CD25+ cells were predominantly found in the lymphocytic outer region of the granuloma, suggesting a possible role for activated CD8+ cells in the initial attempt to restrain the granuloma growth. CD4+ T cells appeared equally distributed in the lymphocytic mantle and in the internal areas of the granulomas. WC1+ cells appeared interspersed among the macrophages. We speculated that this could indicate a role for these 2 subsets in the maintenance and the maturation of the granuloma. In stage III/IV lesions, all of the T-cell subsets investigated appeared interspersed among the mononuclear component of the granulomas. In general terms, there was a higher density of CD8+ cells compared with CD4+ cells.

Estrogen Receptors a and b and Progesterone Receptors in Normal Bovine Ovarian Follicles and Cystic Ovarian Disease. Vet Pathol 44:373–378 (2007). The follicular cysts of animals with COD presented a significantly higher expression of estrogen receptor a in all follicular layers than secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles in both groups (P , .05). Differences did not exist between the 2 groups with regard to the progesterone receptor. Ovaries of animals with COD exhibited altered estrogen receptors expression compared with that in normal animals.

Poorly Differentiated Rectal Carcinoid in a Cow.  Vet Pathol 44:414–417 (2007). A carcinoid tumor was found as a solitary soft mass in the wall of the rectum adjacent to the anorectal junction in an adult Holstein cow. It consisted of a compact arrangement of a great number of large polygonal cells and a small number of small dark cells, some of which showed argyrophilia (Grimelius positive). Immunohistochemically, both types of tumor cells were positive for vimentin, keratin, and S- 100 protein and weakly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), whereas they were negative for some endocrine markers such as chromogranin A, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, serotonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. Electron microscopy revealed membrane-bound secretory granules in the cytoplasm of some small dark cells. In such a poorly differentiated carcinoid, the morphologic characteristics of the small dark cells were strong evidence for the diagnosis.

Susceptibility of Cattle to First-passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from White-tailed Deer. Vet Pathol 44:487–493 (2007).  Although spongiform encephalopathy (SE) was not observed, abnormal prion protein (PrPd) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) in central nervous system tissues. The absence of SE with presence of PrPd has also been observed when other TSE agents (scrapie and CWDmd) were similarly inoculated into cattle.

Orbital (Retrobulbar) Meningioma in a Simmental Cow. Vet Pathol 44:504–507 (2007).  Microscopically, a poorly differentiated neoplasm was observed. The immunohistochemical panel included cytokeratins, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, Factor VIII, CD34, Mart-1, Melan A, smooth muscle actin, desmin, chromogranin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein, and MIB-1. The neoplasm was negative for all of them, with the exception of vimentin and S-100 protein.

Distribution and Cellular Heterogeneity of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viral Antigen Expression in the Brain of Persistently Infected Calves: A New Perspective. Vet Pathol 44:643–654 (2007). BVDV antigen was detected in the brains of all persistently infected calves. A variety of cell types was infected, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendroglia, blood vessel-associated cells (pericytes, perivascular macrophages, smooth muscle cells), and cells in the leptomeninges (blood vessel–associated cells). Conclusive demonstration of viral antigen in vascular endothelial cells was elusive. Viral antigen staining was most consistent and intense in thalamic nuclei, most notably in dorsal and medial nuclear groups, followed by the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal nuclei, and piriform cortex.

Intra-nasal Inoculation of American Bison (Bison bison) with Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) Reliably Reproduces Malignant Catarrhal Fever. Vet Pathol 44:655–662 (2007).  This is the first successful reproduction of MCF in bison using a nasal route of exposure. Experimentally challenged bison are more susceptible to MCF, compared with experimentally challenged domestic cattle in a previous experiment.

Lesion Development and Immunohistochemical Changes in Granulomas from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Pathol 44:863–874 (2007). Early granulomas– moderate Acid-fast bacilli, Abundant iNOS. Late granulomas- large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, less iNOS and CD8+ cells.  The relative number of CD4+ and CD68+ cells remained constant throughout the study. Diminished expression of iNOS and reduced numbers of CD8+ andγ/d T cells late in the progression of tuberculous granulomas may represent a failure of the host response to control infection.

Granulomatous and Eosinophilic Rhinitis in a Cow Caused by Pseudallescheria boydii Species Complex (Anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum). Vet Pathol 44:917–920 (2007).  Grossly multifocal-to-coalescing, raised, ulcerated firm nodules were present in both nares. Histologically, the lamina propria was expanded by intense infiltrates of eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Associated with the inflammatory cells were variably sized, septate hyphae, 5–8 mm in diameter, admixed with numerous, terminal conidia, 6–30 mm in diameter, with a discrete outer wallidentified by culture as Pseudallescheria boydii species complex (anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum).   The asexual form or anamorph is S. apiospermum. Both forms produce conidia in culture, but only P. boydii forms fertile fruiting bodies for sexual reproduction (teleomorph). The 2 forms represent a single species belonging to order Microascales, phylum Ascomycota.

Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid  Rangelands. Vet Pathol 44:928–931 (2007).  Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs.  abnormalities similar to those observed in field cases, including cleft lip, unilateral corneal opacity, ocular bilateral dermoids, buphthalmos with a cloudy brownish appearance of the anterior chamber due to an iridal cyst, and segmental stenosis of the colon. Malformations induced experimentally by M. tenuiflora were similar to those observed in field cases.

Calcium Diacylglycerol Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) Gene Mutations in a Thrombopathic Simmental Calf. Vet Pathol 44:932–935 (2007). Simmental thrombopathia is an inherited platelet disorder that closely resembles the platelet disorders described in Basset Hounds and Eskimo Spitz dogs.  Recently, two different mutations in the gene encoding calcium diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) were described to be associated with the Basset Hound and Spitz thrombopathia disorders, and a third distinct mutation was identified in CalDAG-GEFI in thrombopathic Landseers of European Continental

Type.  This change is likely responsible for the thrombopathic phenotype observed in Simmental cattle and underscores the critical nature of this signal transduction protein in platelets.

Encephalomyelitis of Cattle Caused by Akabane Virus in Southern Japan in 2006, Kamata H et al. 2009, J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 187e193. Naturally infected calves with Akabane virus at neonatal age in calves were presented with nervous signs (55 day to 15 month old). Microscopic lesions include: Cerebrum:Perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes and macrophages and diffuse gliosis. Brain stem: Degeneration and necrosis of neurons with vacuolation of the neuropil. Spinal cord: Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia in the ventral horn. (Jubb and kennedy: mineralization in the meninges, atrophy of the cord and hydromyeleia )

Diagnosis: IHC for viral antigens and RT-PCR for viral s-gene products.

Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Bacteriological Study of Tissues and Milk of Cows and Fetuses Experimentally Infected with Brucella abortus. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 149e157 Infected at 6-7 months of gestation via conjunctiva in 44 cows Uterus containing brownish fluid, with fibrinous exudate on the caruncular surface, Endometritis. B. Necrotizing placentitis C. Fibrinous pleuritis. D. Fibrinous pericarditis.

Microscopic lesions: The most significant lesions were necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and lymphohistiocytic mastitis in cows, and fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinous pericarditis and bronchopneumonia in aborted fetuses.

Milk is the ideal sample for bacterial culture besides mammary glands

Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Associated with Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 (BPV-2) Infection Vet Path 2008 Jan: glomus tumor are mesenchymal tumors originate in the glomus body (neuromyoarterial body composed of afferent arteriole and efferent venule. It has properties of smooth muscle cells). Digit is the preferential anatomic site for this tumor in dogs and cats. Cells +ve for actin and vimentin. Tumor chr by numerous blood vessels lined by endothelial cells and surrounded by round epitheloid cells.

Melanosis of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Vet Path 2008 Jan: The pigment was present in lamina propria and the submucosa without any involvement of urothelial mucosa. BPV-2 was isolated but its association with melanosis is not known.

Sphingomyelinase Deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease) in a Hereford Calf Vet Path 2008 Mar: brain and spinal cord revealed swollen neurons with distended, foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm; hepatocytes throughout the liver were swollen and had foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm; Niemann-Pick types A and B are caused by a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholin; Type B disease has little effect on the nervous system; Type C disease is not a deficiency of sphingomyelinase, but a defect in 1 of 2 proteins involved in the intracellular transport of cholesterol and other lipids from lysosomes.

Herpetiform Genital Lesions in a Heifer with Mucosal Disease Vet Path 2008 Mar: Gross: pink–red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers on the tongue and GI tract. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. A non cytopathic and a CP BVDV pair may be isolated from MD cases, and these can be distinguished by the appearance of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) in the CP virus.

The Fetal Brain in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-infected Calves: Lesions, Distribution, and Cellular Heterogeneity of Viral Antigen at 190 Days Gestation Vet Path 2008 May: Brain is the primary target of persistent infection (PI) with BVDV. Noncytopathic type 2 BVDV was inoculated intranasally in heifers at 75 and 175 days of gestation to create persistently and transiently infected fetuses. In only PI fetuses, encephaloclastic lesions resulting in pseudocysts present in the subependymal zone, areas of rarefaction in white matter at the tips of cerebrocortical gyri and in the external capsule. Viral labeling was most uniform in thalamus. Septum pellucidum cavum closure was delayed in PI brain.

Expression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Tropomyosin-related Kinase-B in a Bovine Jejunal Nodular Ganglioneuroblastoma Vet Path 2008 May: histologic  examination:  the  mass  was  composed  of  clusters  of neuroblasts and  isolated ganglionic neurons in  abundant  neurophilic  matrix  that  was  surrounded  by  scanty Schwannian  stroma.  On ultrastructure  examination,  the  large  ganglionic  neuron-like  cells  had unmyelinated  neurites.  Most ganglionic neuron-like tumor cells expressed neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and  S-100,  whereas  the Schwann-cell–like  stromal  cells expressed  S-100  and  vimentin.  Both  brain- derived  neurotrophic factor  (BDNF)  and  tropomyosin-related  kinase-B  (Trk-B) were  expressed  in ganglionic  neuron-like  tumor  cells,  which  suggested  the  activation  or  reactivation  of  an  embryonic autocrine BDNF/Trk-B pathway that could have prolonged cell survival and promoted differentiation with neurite formation.

Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA) in Four Calves. Vet Pathol 45:634–639 (2008). Myocardial hypoxic-ischemic injury results in cardiac dysfunction, failure, and eventually in patient death.  Gross necropsy lesions suggestive of heart failure included cardiomegaly with atrial and ventricular dilation and/or ventricular hypertrophy, and hepatomegaly.  Histopathologic changes in the heart included cardiomyocyte degeneration; mineralization; and fiber loss, with replacement by fibrous connective tissue, predominantly in the left ventricular papillary muscle and the interventricular septum. Changes observed in the liver and lungs, including hepatomegaly, sinusoidal congestion,centrilobular fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion, edema, and intra-alveolar pigment-laden macrophages were consistent with heart failure.

Systemic Reactive Angioendotheliomatosis-like Syndrome in a Steer Presumed to be

Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus.  Vet Pathol 45:645–649 (2008). Proliferations of spindle cells partially-to-completely occluded vessel lumens and weresupported by cells that were immunohistochemically positive for smooth muscle actin.  Similar to those described in feline systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis.  The presence of occasional intravascular thrombi immunohistochemical similarities to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of humans. Death of the steer was due to hemorrhage from a castration wound, which may indicate thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction.

REVIEW PAPER: Modulation of Mononuclear Phagocyte Function by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.  Vet Pathol 45:829–841 (2008). Organism’s capacity to prevent macrophage activation, block phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuate presentation of antigens to the immune system.  MAP initially interacts with cell membrane receptors on bovine mononuclear phagocytes and initiates cell signaling responses and phagocytosis. Mannosylated liparabinomannan (Man-LAM) is a major component of the MAP cell wall that interacts with the cell membrane of mononuclear phagocytes and may be a major virulence factor. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been incriminated as major signaling receptor that binds to MAP and initiates signaling though the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)–p38 pathway. This pathway induces transcription of interleukin (IL)-10. Early production of IL-10suppresses proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, IL-12, and major histocompatability factor class-II expression. Both IL-10 dependent and IL-10 independent mechanisms appear to be involved in attenuation of phagosome acidification and phagolysosome fusion.  Therefore, MAP Man-LAM-induced TLR2-MAPK-p38 signaling with resultant excessive IL-10 expression has emerged as one of the mechanisms by which MAP organisms suppress inflammatory, immune, and antimicrobial responses and promote their survival within host mononuclear phagocytes.

REVIEW PAPER: A Review of the Pathology of Abnormal Placentae of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Clone Pregnancies in Cattle, Sheep, and Mice. Vet Pathol 45:865–880 (2008). the probability of a successful and complete pregnancy is less than 5%. Failures  of  SCNT  pregnancy  are associated  with  placental  abnormalities,  such  as  placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium, and altered basement membrane. evidence  implicates  aberrant reprogramming of donor nuclei by the recipient oocyte cytoplast, resulting in epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes essential for normal placental development

Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy.  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:137–140 (2009). The sequence analysis based on the 59 UTR and Npro coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.

Infection with Ovine herpesvirus 2 in Norwegian herds with a history of previous outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:257–261 (2009). The prevalence of infection in cattle and swine seemed not to be influenced either by their age or the degree of contact with the sheep and goats.

Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes from a case of placentitis and abortion in a cow.  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:274–277 (2009). pleomorphic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were observed within the fibrin lattice associated with placental lesions and within the fetal atelectatic lung. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated.

Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:402–405 (2009). Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm  of  renal  tubular  epithelial  cells  and  tubular  lumina.  These  changes  were  consistent  with hemoglobinuric  nephrosis. Centrilobular  coagulation  necrosis  was  observed  in  the  liver accompanied  by hemorrhage  and  macrophages  containing  brown  cytoplasmic  pigment.  A  diagnosis  of  hemolytic  anemia caused by onion toxicosis.  Onion toxicosis can be associated with severe methemo-

globinemia, leading to cyanosis hemolytic anemia with the formation of Heinz bodies, and death.  Onions, garlic, and other  plants  of  the  Allium  genus  contain  disulfides,  n- propyl  disulfate,  and  S-methyl  and  S-prop(en)yl  cysteine sulphoxides  (SMCO)  derived  from  amino  acids.  The SMCO  are  hydrolyzed  in  the  rumen  by  anaerobic bacteria to thiosulfonate, which is then further metabolized to dipropyl disulfides and dipropenyl disulfides. These disulfides are responsible for oxidative damage in erythrocytes. In affected animals, heme iron is oxidized to the ferric state, producing methemoglobin. Methemoglobin

is unable to transport oxygen and, when produced in high concentration,  can  rapidly  lead  to  death.  Moreover, oxidative damage results in precipitation and aggregation of   hemoglobin   and   its   binding   to   the   cytoplasmatic membrane,   forming   Heinz   bodies leading to intravascular or extravascular hemolysis.  Another mechanism  of  intravascular  hemolysis  following  ingestion  of high  doses  of  oxidative  agents  is  direct  damage  to  the erythrocytic  plasma  membrane,  causing  cellular  lysis.

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Abortion in Goats Housed with Persistently Infected Cattle: goats experimentally comingled with heifers persistently infected with BVD type 2a. 12 out of 24 aborted. Grossly: placentitis, mummification, facial deformities; Histo: placentitis, myocarditis, thymic depletion, choroid plexitis, encephalitis. Development of PI kid is less likely.

Distribution of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Antigen in Aborted Fetal and Neonatal Goats by IHC: placenta, heart, brain, thymus are most reliable for BVDV antigen detection

Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Bulb of Natural and Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Affected Cattle in Great Britain: involvement of the olfactory bulb in BSE raises speculation as to an olfactory portal of infection or a route of excretion of the prion agent.

Septicemia in a Neonatal Calf Associated with Chromobacterium violaceum: The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, hepatitis, splenitis, and encephalitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, polyarthritis. Lesions documented with C. violaceum includes, visceral abscesses, necrosis, pleuropnuemonia, pericarditis.

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Vascular Urinary Bladder Tumors from Cows with Enzootic Hematuria: CD31 (PECAM) is a better marker than FVIIIra in the characterization of bovine endothelial tumors. The cell cycle regulatory pathways involving cyclin D1 and p53 seem to be impaired in endothelial urinary bladder tumors, p53 immunoreactivity positively correlating with enhanced invasion. The only proven carcinogen in Bracken fern is Ptaquiloside.

Destructive Polyarthropathy in Aborted Bovine Fetuses: A Possible Association with Ureaplasma diversum Infection: Severe destructive polyarthropathy with fibrillation and erosion of articular cartilage, deformation of articular surfaces, and proliferation of periarticular soft tissue was diagnosed in 5 bovine fetuses aborted in the last trimester. Articular cartilage was irregularly reduced in thickness and contained fibrovascular tissue. Ureaplasma spp. was identified in 4 cases by PCR or culture. U. diversum has been associated with granular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis,4 abortion, and the birth of dead or weak calves

Spontaneous Lysosomal Storage Disease Caused by Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) Poisoning in Cattle: Main clinical signs= marching gait, alert gaze, head tremors, and poor growth. Histologically vacuolization in neurons, thyroid follicular and pancreatic acinar cells was seen. Other plants causing head and neck tremors (tremorgenic) are Ipomea, Phalaris, Solanum, Claviceps and Asperigillus

Epithelioid Cells in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Cattle without Cancer: Out of 110 cattle, 66 had  epitheloid cells in lymph nodes. Most of the epithelioid cells were individual or aggregated in nodal sinuses; some epithelioid cells formed tubular structures. Epithelioid cells were mostly considered to be mesothelial in origin by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination.

The Pathology and Pathogenesis of Bluetongue. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 1e16. Virus genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae.  Transmission– Arthropod vectors (Culicoides), transplacental transmission is dependent on strain. Susceptible- Sheep mostly, but serotype 8 can cause disease in Cattle, goats,  and camelids. Replicationmacrophage/monocyte, endothelial cells, lymphocytes. PathogenesisInjury to small blood vessels in target tissues (lung, skin) leading to thrombosis and infarction.  Direct viral induced cytolysis is also a factor. GROSS lesionsSHEEP coronitis; subintimal hemorrhage in the pulmonary artery; edema of the lungs, subcutis, muscles of the neck and abdominal wall; and pericardial, pleural and abdominal effusions; haemorrhage and ulcers in the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract; necrosis of skeletal and cardiac muscle, Fetal lesions- cavitation in the CNS, hydranencephaly,  if they survive early infection.  Immunocompetence occurs in mid-gestation: CATTLE: Ulceration of muzzle, oral mucosa, teats, interdigital necrosis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hydranencephaly: WTD DIC and hemorrhage: CAMELIDS– pulmonary edema, hydrothorax and pericardial effusion. Carnoivores– Pulmonary edema, abortion. Comparative– Orbiviruses: Horse- African Horse Sickness; WTD- Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus 1 and 2 (very similar to BTV). DDX: Hemorrhagic dz in WTD – EHDV, BTV, Ibaraki virus,  and Adenovirus Hemorrhagic Disease.

Co-expression of Bovine Papillomavirus E5 and E7 Oncoproteins in Naturally Occurring in Cattle.  J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 84e88.  Oncoproteins: BPV-1/2 : E5  binds to the platelet-derived growth factor- b receptor (PDGF-b R) induces transformation in  spontaneously  arising  urothelial  carcinoma.  Cytoplasmic BPV E7 expression has only been reported in bovine fibropapillomas and equine sarcoids.  In benign bovine alimentary fibropapillomas, BPV-4 E7 oncoprotein is  expressed  in  all  epithelial  cells, whereas in BPV-1-associated cutaneous papillomas, E7 is found in the basal and lower spinous layers. In the present study, E7 expression involved all cell layers of the carcinoma.  The results of our study indicate that E7 expression increases with increasing severity of carcinoma.

Congenital facial  deformities, ascites  and hepatic fibrosis in  Romagnola calves.  Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 693-694.  All animals- Shortened and flattened face , Ascites, and hepatic fibrosis.  Other lesions not present in all animals: cleft palate, lack of the medial dewclaws, hepatic cysts with, atrial  and inter-ventricular septal defects,  polycystic kidney and dilation of the urinary ducts.  Genealogical evaluation of the affected animals revealed common  ancestors and inbreeding loops, which strongly suggested a genetic aeti ology (Autosomal recessive inheritance).

Congenital tremor and hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in 23 British cattle herds.  Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 771-778.  Histopath- severe diffuse deficiency of stainable myelin, abnormalities of white matter macroglial nuclei, consisting of large, often indented nuclear outlines, and closely arranged disorderly lines or clusters, sparse mononuclear perivascular infiltrates in the  white  matter.  Small numbers of necrotic Purkinje cells with axonal swellings (torpedoes).  BVDV Immunostaining: neuronal cell bodies, particularly frequently in the granule cells and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus. Extensive diffuse cytoplasmic  labelling  of pericytes,  and  sparse  to  extensive  punctate  labelling of white matter glia were also present. Meningothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, ependymal cells and neurites were variably labeled. Hypomyelination is found frequently in sheep infected with Border disease, but not in cattle with BVD infection. Possible reasons for these unusual manifestations include the calves’ gestational age when infected, differences in the strain of virus or the  infective dose, and factors such as the breed, age and immune status of  the dams.

Early Phase Morphological Lesions and Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Ileum Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 46:717–728 (2009). MAP invades the  intestinal  mucosa  as  early  as  0.5 hour postinoculation.  Along with cytokines, intestinal-trefoil factor, profilin, lactoferrin, and enteric ß-defensin, were elaborated.  Monocyte chemoattractant  protein-1  and  -2 (MCP-1  and MCP-2) are C-C chemokines that are chemotactic for  monocytes  but  not  PMNs.  CCR2, the  ligand for MCP-1, has been shown to be up-regulated in T lymphocytes isolated from the intestine of Crohn’s patients. Chemoattractants for PMNs include the C-X-C chemokines GRO-a, GRO-c, and IL-8. A synchronized  up-regulation  of  IL-8  and  GRO-a has  been  proposed  to  be  involved  in  the  PMN- mediated tissue injury in patients with inflammatory  bowel disease.

Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments.  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:464–477 (2009). Bacteria found- Mycoplasma spp. (71.4%), Arcanobacterium  pyogenes  (35.0%), Mannheimia  haemolytica  (25.0%),  Pasteurella  multocida  (24.5%), Histophilus  somni  (10.0%), Salmonella  spp.  (0.5. %).    Viruses – Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and 10.8% (Gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Bovine Coronavirus 4.6%, BVDV-2a NCP (3.2%), BVDV-1a  noncytopathic  (NCP;  2.7%), BVDV-1b NCP (2.7%), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (2.3%), BVDV-1a cytopathic (CP) vaccine strain (1.8%),  BVDV-2b CP (0.5%). Bovine viral diarrhea virus IHC testing was positive in 5.3% of the animals.

Large Animal/Bovine

1st & 2nd cattle passage of transmissible mink encephalopathy by intracerebral inoculation pp118-26. March 2006 NW

Intracerebrally inoculated cattle amplify transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) PrPres and develop clinical CNS signs and extensive lesions of spongiform encephalopathy.

Cattle inoculated with other TSE agents (scrapie and CWD) do NOT develop clinical CNS signs or SE lesions.

The current diagnostic techniques for BSE detect TME in cattle, but it is a diagnostic challenge to differentiate TME in cattle from BSE by clinical signs, neuropathology, or the presence of PrPres by IHC and Western Blots.

Scrapie PrPSc causes lesions comparable to TME in mink

The severity of spongiform change in cattle infected with TME-derived prion protein ranks as follows:

Midbrain (superior colliculus) > brain stem (obex) > cerebellum > hippocampus

Mucosal immune response in cattle with subclinical Johne’s disease. pp127-35. March 2006  JTP. good paper

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, chronic granulomatous enteritis of wild & domestic ruminants

endocytosed by M cells of ileal Peyer’s patches, then phagocytosed by macs

lepromatous lesions worse than tuberculoid, w/worse lymphoid response & more intralesional organisms, less production of IFN-γ & IL-2

–  during long subclinical period, organism persists in intestine despite systemic cellular (Th1-type) & humoral immune responses; systemic spread occurs as CMI wanes

–  infected cows w/increased % of T cells, but mostly memory (CD2+CD62L-) & regulatory (CD4+CD25+) T cells also decreased % of T cells w/activated phenotype, decrease in cells expressing MHC class II

–  suggests generalized T & B cell hyporesponsiveness)

–  so state of tolerance may exist in intestine of cows subclinically infected w/M. a. paratb

– Proliferation of regulatory T cells than nonspecifically suppress mucosal immune responsiveness

– Ileal response biased toward hyporesponsive memory & regulatory T-cell phenotype; attenuated response

Morphological & IHC features of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle. March 2006  NW

Prominent mucosal hyperplasia of abomasum in cattle infected with C. andersoni

Five cattle (3-6y) with no clinical signs

C. andersoni (round in shape, 6–8 mm) in abomasums – freely located in the gastric pits, being attached in occasional cases to the surface of the abomasums epithelium

Lamina propria of the affected mucosa:

Infiltrates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils

Histological and ultrastructural features of C. andersoni organisms and its mechanisms of attachment to epithelial cells might be similar to other Cryptosporidia

Mucosal hyperplasia – Only in C. andersoni

Neuroblastoma with neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord in an Aberdeen Angus heifer calf. pp193-97. March

2006  MT

–  WHO: neuroblastoma = embryonal neuroepithelial neoplasm w/limited neuronal differentiation; most common in

young cattle & dogs, usu. adrenal gland

–  part of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family; originate from multipotential stem cell, medulloblastoma most

common in animals (mostly young cattle & puppies)

–  histo: 1) undiff’d primitive polygonal to round cells (neuroectoderm)

2) areas w/myelinated axons & cells w/neuronal differentiation

classic IHC: + for VIM, synaptophysin, NSE, S-100; neg for NF & GFAP

Which marker is expressed in neuroepithelial progenitor cells and lost with further differentiation: Nestin

Nasal Osteoma in a Dairy Cow: a Combined Clinical, Imaging and Histopathological Approach to Diagnosis: J Comp Path 141 vol 2-3:smooth-surfaced mass within the left nasal cavity, composed of well-differentiated and interlacing bone trabeculae lined by osteoblasts and multinucleated osteoclasts.

Endocarditis in a British heifer due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 28-29Right AV valve affected with right sided heart failure and angiocentric pneumonia.

Infertility and venereal disease in cattle inseminated with semen containing bovine herpesvirus type 5. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 111-113A group of 20 cows and heifers experienced poor conception rates and probable ovarian dysfunction after being artificially inseminated. Some showed signs of vulvovaginitis, with pustular, ulcerative lesions consistent with a herpesvirus infection (BHV-1). They had had no contact with bulls during the current breeding season. Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) was isolated from samples of frozen semen from the batch that had been used for theartificial insemination program.

Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon intoxication in one-day-old calves. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 816-817 Abundant protein-rich edemafluid was present in the cerebral and cerebellar meninges, and there were perivascular eosinophilic hyaline globules in the grey matter of the cerebral cortex, perivascular proteinaceous edema in the thalamus and marked widening of the perivascular spaces.

There was marked pulmonary edema and multifocal acute purulent bronchopneumonia. Renal autolysis was marked and associated with recent red blood cell extravasation. C perfringens alpha and epsilon toxins, but not beta toxin, were demonstrated by ELISA in a sample of large intestinal contents. Cryptosporidia,Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Salmonella species were not detected by standard diagnostic methods. The lesions observed in the brain of both calves were indicative of altered vascular permeability and resembled those reported in cases of clostridial epsilon intoxication in sheep. Pulmonary edema, which was observed in both calves, was a feature of experimental epsilon intoxication in cattle.

Bilateral otitis media with facial paralysis in a Japanese black calf

Veterinary Record (2009) 165, 212-213 History: A three-month-old Japanese black calf showing clinical signs of bilateral facial paralysis and anorexia. Infection within the middle ear appears to be an extension of otitis externa in the vast majority of cases in small animals (Neer 1982). However, in the large animals, haematogenous spread and ascending infection from rhinitis, pharyngitis and guttural pouch empyema, rather than otitis externa with rupture of the tympanic membrane, are frequently the routes of infection (Mayhew 1989b, Braun and others 2004). Pasteurella species, Streptococcus species and Arcanobacterium species have been isolated from the infected ears of cattle (Jensen and others 1983), and the relationship between mycoplasma infections and otitis media/interna has been well documented in calves.

Retinal Function and Morphology Are Altered in Cattle Infected with the Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy. Vet Pathol 46:810–818 (2009). Using Bovine Adapted TME prion. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible  mink  encephalopathy–infected  cattle  before  the  onset  of  clinical  illness.  We  also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Mu¨ ller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration.

Myocardial Adenomatoid Tumor in Eight Cattle: Evidence for Mesothelial Origin of Bovine Myocardial Epithelial Inclusions. Vet Pathol 46:897–903 (2009). Adenomatoid tumors typically arise in the genital tract, exceptionally in the heart, and usually represent  an  incidental  finding.  Microscopically,  they  are  constituted  by epithelioid  cells  that  form tubular  structures  and anastomosing  channels  within  a  fibrous  stroma.  Mesothelial  origin  of  these lesions  is  suggested  by  their  immunohistochemical  characteristics.  lesions were in the left ventricular myocardium, adjacent to the epicardium, and composed of epithelioid cells that formed cords and tubules, and were immunoreactive for pan-cytokeratins, cytokeratin 5/6, vimentin,  calretinin, Wilms’  tumor  1  suppressor  gene,  and  CD30 (TNFRsf8) antigen.  By  electron  microscopy, numerous long slender microvilli were associated with desmosomes and tonofibrils. The immunohistochemical  and  ultrastructural  features  were  considered  consistent  with  mesothelial  origin.

Immunohistochemical Studies of Epithelial Cell Proliferation and p53 Mutation in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma: 10 of 15 tumors tested were immunoreactive for p53, p53 overexpression is frequent in bovine OSCC. 12 tumors demonstrated Ki67 expression, Ki67 index showed significant correlation with the histologic pattern, increased proliferation being found in poorly differentiated OSCC

Viral Antigen Distribution in the Respiratory Tract of Cattle Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtype 2a: Throughout the respiratory tract, mononuclear leukocytes, vascular smooth muscle, endoneural and perineural cells, squamous and ciliated columnar epithelium, tubuloalveolar glands, chondrocytes of the concha had BVDV immunoreactivity. Viral antigen was not seen in goblet cells. BVDV-IR Sserous secretions of the nasal cavity, productive viral infection of epithelium, and infected leukocytes in respiratory secretions are likely major sources of infectious BVDV from PI calves.

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Immunoreactivity in the Granulomatous Intestinal Lesions of Naturally Occurring Bovine Johne’s Disease: In human granulomatous diseases such as leprosy, Tuberculoid granulomas are associated with enhanced iNOS production and improved clinical outcomes over the lepromatous types. 24 cases of bovine Johne’s disease were examined; all cases had granulomas with features most similar to the lepromatous type. This morphology correlated with heavy bacterial burdens demonstrated by acid-fast staining and mycobacterial immunoreactivity. None of the cases had high expression of iNOS in mycobacterial-positive granulomas. iNOS expression and reactive nitrogen intermediate production are important for macrophage killing of a wide range of intracellular pathogens including Histoplasma capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Ectromelia virus. lepromatous granulomas usually have Th2 profile and tuberculoid granulomas with a Th1 profile. Granulomas which have widespread distribution, poor delineation, and heavy bacterial burden are lepromatous-type granulomas. Discrete granulomas with well-delineated boundaries are tuberculoid-type granulomas.

Uterine Mast Cells and Immunoglobulin-E Antibody Responses During Clearance of Tritrichomonas foetus: Histo: vagina had diffuse variably intensesuppurative and lymphoplasmacytic mucosal and submucosal inflammation, with moderate exocytosis and occasionally dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Uterus consisted of suppurative and eosinophilic endometritis with a diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, mast cells, and mild eosinophilic infiltration of the myometrium. Little IgG2 antibody was detected but IgG1, IgA, IgM, and IgE T. foetus–specific antibodies increased in uterine secretions after infection with T. foetus. This was inversely proportional to subepithelial mast cells numbers. Cross-linking of IgE on mast cells by antigen and perhaps lipophosphoglycan triggering appears to have resulted in degranulation. Released cytokines may account for production of predominantly Th2 (IgG1 and IgE) and IgA antibody responses, which are related to clearance of the infection. Tritrichomonas foetus, an extracellular parasite that colonizes the uterine, vaginal, and preputial epithelium of female and male cattle, respectively. It is most often found deep in uterine glands or preputial crypts, probably because it requires anaerobic conditions. The prevalence is high in beef-producing areas of the world or whenever natural breeding is used. In a recent random survey in California, 16% of herds were infected.Control has been primarily by culling infected animals because of the long-term nature of the infection

Fatal Adverse Pulmonary Reaction in Calves after Inadvertent Intravenous Vaccination: 3 calves vaccinated against respiratory and clostridial diseases. All 3 calves had severe acute interstitial pneumonia with multifocal pulmonary hemorrhages that resulted in fatal respiratory failure. Approximately 30% of the arterioles and small arteries were surrounded by hemorrhages. A unilateral peri-jugular hematoma with recent transmural perforation of jugular vein found in all 3 calves was believed to have been caused by the injection needle during vaccination, and the fatal pulmonary changes were believed to have been secondary to the I/V injection.

Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Different Types of Granulomatous Lesions during Asymptomatic Stages of Bovine Paratuberculosis: The granulomatous lesions in bovine paratuberculosis have been classified into two types, lepromatous type and the tuberculoid type. Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, and Th1-type cytokine IL-2 were expressed more significantly in the lepromatous group than in the tuberculoid and noninfected group. No statistical differences were observed in the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and GM-CSF among lepromatous, tuberculoid, and noninfected groups. IL-18 was expressed at lower levels in the lepromatous group than in the tuberculoid group and the noninfected group indicating that it may play an important role in a Th1-to-Th2 switch in paratuberculosis.

Bovine Papillomavirus Type-2 (BPV-2) Infection and Expression of Uroplakin IIIb, a Novel Urothelial Cell Marker, in Urinary Bladder Tumors of Cows: Expression of uroplakin (UP) IIIb, an urothelium-specific and differentiation-dependent protein, was seen in urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cows that had suffered from chronic enzootic hematuria for several years. BPV-2 DNA was amplified and UP IIIb protein was detected in all these tumors. In papillomas and papillary carcinomas, UP IIIb expression was mostly seen as superficial staining; luminal and peripheral patterns were also observed. In nonpapillary carcinomas, UP IIIb appeared to define clearly the cell membrane lining intercellular and intracellular lumina as well as the cell borders in deeper cell layers. Although UP IIIb expression does not seem to correlate with the biological behavior of urothelial tumors, it appears to be a highly sensitive marker for bovine urothelial tumors.

Meningoencephalitis Tuberculosa in a Holstein Cow: Grossly, numerous gray to yellow, firm and caseous nodules present on the ventral surfaces of the brain and in the lateral and fourth ventricles. Histopathologically, foci of caseation and dystrophic mineralization were surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, epitheloid macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibrous proliferation. Ziehl-Neelsen stains of the lesions revealed masses of slender acid-fast bacilli in the necrotic centers of lesions and within surrounding giant cells.

Diagnostic Exercise: Myocarditis Due to Histophilus somni in Feedlot and Backgrounded Cattle. Vet Pathol 46:1015–1017 (2009).   focal red discoloration in papillary muscle of the left ventricular myocardium. Histologically, the lesion corresponded to acute necrotizing myocarditis with myriad intravascular and intralesional Gram-negative coccobacilli. Histophilus somni was detected by bacterial culture and Immunohistochemistry.

Congenital infiltrative lipomas in a calf. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:719–721 (2009). The current report describes a case of congenital subcutaneous and intramuscular tumors of the neck and tail base in a 4-week-old female Angus-Charolais crossbred calf. Results of clinical and ultrasound examination  are  summarized.  Biopsy  and  necropsy  findings  indicated  an  infiltrative  lipoma.  Congenital lipomas are uncommon tumors in bovids. Clinical and morphologic differentials, as well as classification and the possible pathogenesis of congenital neoplasms, are discussed.

Muscular pseudohypertrophy (steatosis) in a bovine fetus. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:198–201 (2007). Muscular pseudohypertrophy was diagnosed in thecervical musculature of a full-term crossbred Simmental fetus delivered by fetotomy. The neck musculature of the fetus was markedly deformed by 23 cm and 18 cm in diameter, firm, spherical masses that consisted of enlarged and pale left splenius and right serratus ventralis cervicis muscle, respectively, covered by intact skin. Additionally, lipomatous masses were present within the cervical vertebral canal, compressing the spinal cord. Microscopically, the prominent muscular enlargement was due to massive adipose and fibrous connective tissue replacement of atrophic muscle. Focal myelodysplasia and astrocytosis affecting the grey matter was detected in the mid-cervical region of the spinal cord, accompanied by degeneration in the ascending and descending tracts of the remaining cord segments. Abnormal spinal cord development as a result of severe spinal cord compression by the lipomatous masses within the spinal canal leading to replacement of muscle by fat and fibrous tissue was considered to be the cause of the muscular malformation in this fetus.

Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Bulb of Natural and Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Affected Cattle in Great Britain: involvement of the olfactory bulb in BSE raises speculation as to an olfactory portal of infection or a route of excretion of the prion agent.

Septicemia in a Neonatal Calf Associated with Chromobacterium violaceum: The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, hepatitis, splenitis, and encephalitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, polyarthritis. Lesions documented with C. violaceum includes, visceral abscesses, necrosis, pleuropnuemonia, pericarditis.

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Vascular Urinary Bladder Tumors from Cows with Enzootic Hematuria: CD31 (PECAM) is a better marker than FVIIIra in the characterization of bovine endothelial tumors. The cell cycle regulatory pathways involving cyclin D1 and p53 seem to be impaired in endothelial urinary bladder tumors, p53 immunoreactivity positively correlating with enhanced invasion. The only proven carcinogen in Bracken fern is Ptaquiloside.

Destructive Polyarthropathy in Aborted Bovine Fetuses: A Possible Association with Ureaplasma diversum Infection: Severe destructive polyarthropathy with fibrillation and erosion of articular cartilage, deformation of articular surfaces, and proliferation of periarticular soft tissue was diagnosed in 5 bovine fetuses aborted in the last trimester. Articular cartilage was irregularly reduced in thickness and contained fibrovascular tissue. Ureaplasma spp. was identified in 4 cases by PCR or culture. U. diversum has been associated with granular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis,4 abortion, and the birth of dead or weak calves

Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Murrah Buffalos.  Vet Pathol 45:542–545 (2008). At  necropsy,  lesions  were  consistent  with congestive  heart  failure as  indicated  by dependent subcutaneous edema, body cavity effusions, and nutmeg liver. The lungs were extensively atelectatic. The heart was enlarged and had a globous shape. The ductus arteriosus, measuring 0.8 cm in length and 0.4 cm in caliber, was patent. The proximal pulmonary artery had an approximately 50-mm- long aneurysm. Eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was evident primarily in the right but to a lesser degree also in the left ventricle. Additionally, there was diffusesubendocardial fibrosis in the left and right ventricle. Possibly hereditary.

Clinicopathologic Features of Experimental Clostridium perfringens Type D Enterotoxemia in Cattle (Same as in Sheep). Vet Pathol 46:1213–1220 (2009). Gross findings were observed in these 10 animals and consisted of acute pulmonary edema, excessive protein-rich pericardial fluid, watery contents in the small intestine, and multifocal petechial hemorrhages on the jejunal mucosa. The brain of one animal of group 2 that survived for 8 days showed multifocal, bilateral, and symmetric encephalomalacia in the corpus striatum. The most striking histologic changes consisted of perivascular high protein  edema  in  the brain,  and  alveolar and  interstitial  proteinaceous pulmonary edema.  The animal that survived for 8 days and that had gross lesions in the corpus striatum showed histologically severe, focal necrosis of this area, cerebellar peduncles, and thalamus.

Serum thymidine kinase activity as a useful marker for bovine leukosis. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:871–874 (2009). TK was elevated when there was leukosis in peripheral blood, not just when BLV positive serologically. Thymidine kinase activities of all Bovine leukemia virus–positive cows with or without lymphocytosis were below the discrimination value. Sensitivity and specificity of measuring serum TK activity as a diagnostic tool for bovine leukosis was 95.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Results indicate that serum TK activity may be a marker for bovine leukosis.  95.0% of cows with bovine leukosis had elevated serum TK activity (Sporadic (no cause), Atypical, and EBL). Enzootic   bovine   leukosis   is   divided   into   3   stages: serologically  positive,   but  negative  for  lymphocytosis; serologically  positive  and  positive  for  PL;  and  leukemia. Approximately  30%  of  infected  cattle  progress  to  PL, which is characterized by polyclonal expansion of B cells, while  only  a  small  percentage  of  BLV-infected  cattle develop  malignant  lymphosarcoma.

Coinfection of a cow with Bovine leukemia virus and Mycobacterium bovis. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:878–882 (2009). Peripheral and visceral

lymph nodes of this animal were markedly enlarged, homogeneously pale white, and bulged on the cut surface.  The  submandibular,  mesenteric,  and  caudal  mediastinal  lymph  nodes  contained  multifocal  to coalescing caseogranulomas that  ranged  from  1  to  5  cm  in  diameter.  Histologically,  dense  sheets  of

monomorphic populations of neoplastic lymphocytes obliterated the normal architecture of all lymph nodes. Caseogranulomas  were  characterized  by  central  pools  of  amorphous  degenerate  eosinophilic  and occasionally mineralized granular debris surrounded by thick rims of epithelioid macrophages, occasional Langhan’s type giant cells, and fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction assay was positive for BLV. Cultures of affected lymph nodes yielded growth of M. bovis.

Malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:920–924 (2009). Five cases of postparturient vulvovaginitis and metritis in cattle caused by Clostridium septicum (malignant edema) are described in the current report. Perineal, perivulvar, and perivaginal gelatinous and often hemorrhagic edema was consistently observed on gross examination. Longitudinal vulvar, vaginal, cervical, and uterine body tears, covered by fibrinous exudates, were also present. Microscopically, vulvar, vaginal, and uterine mucosae were multifocally necrotic and ulcerated. Large Gram positive rods, some with subterminal spores, were present within the edematous subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. These cases of malignant edema were considered to be produced by C. septicum and predisposed by the trauma occurring during parturition.

Zygomycotic Lymphadenitis in Slaughtered Feedlot Cattle. Veterinary Pathology 47(1) 108-115. Histologically, nodal architecture was effaced by necrosis, granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis. Nonseptate, irregularly branching hyphae with nonparallel walls and bulbous enlargements were common in necrotic areas and within the cytoplasm of multinucleated giant cells. Rhizomucor pusillus; Absidia corymbifera.

Epithelioid hemangiosarcomas of the bovine urinary bladder: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examination of four tumors. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:116–119 (2010). Grossly, the vesicular mucosa of the urinary bladder of each  cow  contained  a  single  red  elevated  nodule.  Histologically,  each  neoplasm  was  composed  of  short strands, cords, or nests of epithelioid, round, or slightly spindle-shaped endothelial cells that formed small vascular structures. Neoplastic cells were  immunohistochemically positive for factor VIII–related antigen and vimentin, and were negative for cytokeratin and desmin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells often contained cytoplasmic  intermediate  filaments,  a  prominent  granular  endoplasmic  reticulum,  a  Golgi  complex, mitochondria, marked pinocytotic activity, and rare Weibel-Palade bodies.

Bovine abortion associated with Nocardia farcinica. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:108–111 (2010). The  gross findings included purulent exudate in the placenta and numerous abscesses in lung. Histologically, there was necrotizing  and  suppurative  placentitis,  pyogranulomatous  pneumonia,  and  nephritis  with  numerous intralesional  branching  and  filamentous,  Gram-positive  bacteria.  Nocardia  farcinica  was  isolated  by bacteriology, and the bacteriology result was confirmed by 2 established polymerase chain reaction protocols and by DNA sequencing.

A fatal case of autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) poisoning in a heifer: confirmation by mass-spectrometric colchicine detection. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:119–122 (2010).acute gastrointestinal irritation 48 hr after ingesting fresh leaves of Colchicum autumnale. Caused Hemorrhagic diarrhea.

An outbreak of late-term abortions, premature births, and congenital deformities associated with a Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subtype b that induces thrombocytopenia. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:128–131 (2010). Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b was isolated from premature Holstein calves from a dairy herd that experienced an outbreak of premature births, late-term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, malformations of the brain and cranium, and rare extracranial skeletal malformations in calves born to first-calf heifers. Experimental inoculation of 3 colostrum-deprived calves aged 2–4 months old with this BVDV isolate resulted in thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and leukopenia. Outbreaks of brachygnathism are rarely associated with BVDV, and thrombocytopenia is rarely associated with BVDV-1 strains.

A Review of Bovine Urothelial Tumours and Tumour-Like Lesions of the Urinary Bladder. J. Comp. Path. 2010, Vol. 142, 95e108. Four distinct growth patterns of bovine urothelial tumours and tumour like lesions are recognized: at, exophytic or papillary, endophytic and invasive. Low-grade carcinoma is the most common urothelial tumour of cattle. Of the known BPVs, BPV-1 and BPV-2 are the only viruses known to infect the urothelium of the urinary bladder. BPV-1 and -2 encode three oncoproteins, E5, E6 and E7. E5 activates the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ß receptor, thereby initiating a mitogenic response even in the absence of PDGF.  Additionally, E5 can post-translationally activate c-Src, which induces cellular transformation independently of PDGF receptor activation. Ptaquiloside (PT) induces DNAAlkylation, and H-ras 1 mutation, and the flavanoid quercetin is involved in cell transformation by papillomavirus.

Polysynovitis after Oligofructose Overload in Dairy Cattle. J. Comp. Path. 2010, Vol. 142, 129e138. distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers, often diagnosed as acute laminitis. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Cows developed generalized sterile fibrinous-neutrophilic polysynovitis.

Epithelial and Pancreatic Choristoma in Bovine Lymph Nodes. J. Comp. Path. 2010, Vol. 142, 228e234: The mediastinal lymph nodes of 13 animals contained atypical structures. In 12 cases (6.45%) these consisted of multiple epithelial structures and, in one case, of pancreatic-like tissue. epithelial structures were consistent with respiratory epithelium and with ectopic pancreatic tissue,

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