Camelids


Listeria monocytogenes Septicaemia and Concurrent Clostridial Infection in an Adult Alpaca (Lama pacos) findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatits, splenitis, colitis and ulcerative to diptheroid ileitis.

Systemic Candida albicans Infection in Two Alpacas (Lama pacos) Candida albican is dimorphic fungus commensal in skin, upper respiratory tract, alimentary tract and genital tract. Immunosuppresion or disturbance of cutaneous/mucosal barrier for invasion to take place..Histo: suppurative to necrotizing inflammation in various organs.

Parasite-induced leucomyelopathy in llamas (Lama glama): Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, a protostrongylid nematode, is a recognised cause of ataxia and recumbency in llamas in USA. Extensive haemorrhagic and necrotizing leucomyelopathy (lumbar spinal cord) with multiple nematode larva. White-tailed deer is the definitive host of P tenuis. Parasite in this report was identified as Elaphostrongylus cervi, which has similar life cycle as P tenuis.

Carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama (Lama glama). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:450–453 (2007).  Histopathologic examination revealedtubulopapillary acinar or solid nest-like clusters of neoplastic epithelial cells surrounded by whorls and sheets of proliferative myoepithelial cells. Histologic criteria for malignancy observed in neoplastic epithelial cells included marked cellular and nuclear atypia, high mitotic index, and numerous bizarre mitoses. The presence of osseous metaplasia in the proliferative mesenchymal component justified classification as a mixed tumor.

Atypical coccidiosis in South American camelids. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:122–125 (2007). Anorexia of a few days duration, sudden death, and diarrhea. No coccidial oocysts detected on antemortem fecal flotation ( Eimeria lamae, Eimeria alpacae, Eimeria macusaniensis, Eimeria punoensis, and Eimeria peruviana, Eimeria ivitaensis).  Histopathology revealed numerous Eimeria oocysts at various life-cycle stages in the mucosa and lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum. Hepatocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cytoplasm consistent with hepatic lipidosis.

Encephalitozoon cuniculi–Associated Placentitis and Perinatal Death in an Alpaca Vet Path 2008 Mar: Placentitis, premature birth, and perinatal death were associated with Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in an alpaca. Histologically, chorionic trophoblasts contained many Gram-positive, PAS positive spores. Chorionic membrane had MF necrosis, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Placentitis also reported in squirrel monkey, foxes and horse. Most species, E.cuniculi infections= nonsuppurative encephalitis, nephritis, vasculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, and placentitis

Metastatic malignant melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:141–144 (2009). Ulcerated, multilobulated, black pigmented mass (8.0 cm 3 6.0 cm 3 4.0 cm) that infiltrated the left rostral maxilla extending into the marrow space and into the left nasal cavity. Numerous, discrete, coalescing masses were present in the subcutaneous tissue of the submandibular area, peritracheal connective tissue, pericardium, and diaphragmatic parietal pleura and were disseminated throughout the pulmonary parenchyma. The masses were diffusely black on cut surface and exuded black pigment. Histologically, all masses were composed of spindloid to polygonal cells with indistinct cell borders and moderate amounts of cytoplasm that contained abundant fine, black granules (melanin), confirming metastasis of a primary mucocutaneous melanoma.

Disseminated Bovine viral diarrhea virus in a persistently infected alpaca (Vicugna pacos) cria.  J Vet Diagn Invest 21:145–148 (2009). disseminated BVDV-1b infection. Virus was detected in multiple tissues, including parotid salivary gland, testes, prostate, kidneys, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Demonstration of BVDV in previously unreported tissues suggests additional potential routes of BVDV transmission in alpacas.

Osteogenic intraocular melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:171–173 (2009). Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the tumor was an intraocular melanoma with bone formation. Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma not reported in the eye before.

Cotoneaster sp. poisoning in a llama (Lama glama). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:247–249 (2009). The clinical signs were dyspnea, with congested mucous membranes, chewing, recumbency, and opisthotonos. Several hours after ingestion of the plant, the llama died, despite treatment with sodium thiosulfate and nitrite.Necropsy revealed approximately 676 g of leaves and fruit of Cotoneaster in the first compartment of the stomach. The blood was light red and did not clot. Because Cotoneaster sp. contains low concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides, toxicosis occurs only following massive ingestion of plant material.

Metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma and hepatic lipomatosis in a llama (Lama glama). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:280–282 (2009). infiltrative uterine adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases. The neoplasm completely replaced and infiltrated the myometrium of the uterine body and cervix and metastasized largely to the serosal surfaces of the peritoneal cavity. Histopathology identified a highly invasive growth of neoplastic cells in solid packets or tubular arrangements and marked fibroplasia.

Malignant Round Cell Neoplasia in Llamas and Alpacas: Mean age of affected alpacas (3.1 years) was significantly less than that of affected llamas (8.0 years). B-cell lymphoma (12 cases) and T-cell lymphoma (6 cases). Six tumors did not express any lymphoid marker and were classified as primitive malignant round cell tumor. Lymphomas are the most common tumor affecting camelids. Liver and kidney are most commonly involved organs in round cell tumor.

Brain tumours in two Bactrian camels: a histiocytic sarcoma and a meningioma. Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 684-688. Thalamus-medium to large, pleomorphic round cells with ovoid, cleaved or reniform nuclei, faintly  granular,  pale  eosinophilic cytoplasm,commonly binucleated. The mass was also heavily infiltrated with small lymphocytes and fewer plasma cells, and formed cuffs about the prominent vasculature. Immunohistochemistry showed strong, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of the pleomorphic cells with antibody to CD163 (macrophages) and CD3 demonstrated an abundance of T lymphocytes, either perivascular or infiltrating the mass . Any B lymphocytes present were not labelled by the generic reagent (CD79a). The neoplasm was GFAP-negative except for solitary cytoplasmic processes of reactive astrocytes trapped within the mass and abundant reactive astrocytes in the surrounding brain tissue. The mass was diagnosed as a thalamic histiocytic sarcoma. The meningioma was adhered to the dura and was fibroblastic type.

Listeria monocytogenes Septicaemia and Concurrent Clostridial Infection in an Adult Alpaca (Lama pacos) findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatits, splenitis, colitis and ulcerative to diptheroid ileitis.

Systemic Candida albicans Infection in Two Alpacas (Lama pacos) Candida albican is dimorphic fungus commensal in skin, upper respiratory tract, alimentary tract and genital tract. Immunosuppresion or disturbance of cutaneous/mucosal barrier for invasion to take place..Histo: suppurative to necrotizing inflammation in various organs.

Parasite-induced leucomyelopathy in llamas (Lama glama): Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, a protostrongylid nematode, is a recognised cause of ataxia and recumbency in llamas in USA. Extensive haemorrhagic and necrotising leucomyelopathy (lumbar spinal cord) with multiple nematode larva. White-tailed deer is the definitive host of P tenuis. Parasite in this report was identified as Elaphostrongylus cervi, which has similar life cycle as P tenuis.

Oleander intoxication in New World Camelids. JAVMA 235 2009. Oleander contains cardenolides (cardiac glycosides: Na/K ATPase pump inhibition àincreased intracellular calciumà positive inotrope) and triterpenoids. Acute renal failure, GI and Cardiac dysfunction.

Albendazole toxicosis in 12 Alpacas. JVIM 2009: Hypoproteinemia, neutropenia, Crypt epithelial necrosis, Bone marrow hypocellularity.  Mechanism- mitochondrial inhibitor.

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a lumbar vertebra and the liver of a dromedary camel. Homer wright rosettes, uniform sheets, pseudorosettes. Vimentin and NSE and GFAP.

Cerebellar Abiotrophy in an Alpaca (Lama pacos). Vet Pathol 46:1133–1137 (2009). cerebellar vermis, included marked absence of Purkinje cells, decreased granule cells, narrowing of the  molecular  layer,  and  thinning  of  white  matter  tracts  consistent  with  abiotrophy. ↑ GFAP, ↓ Neurofilament.

Identification of a novel coronavirus possibly associated with acute respiratory syndrome in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in California, 2007. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:94–97 (2010). Alpaca respiratory syndrome (ARS) is characterized by acute respiratory signs, high fever, and occasional sudden death, and has mostly been observed in pregnant alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The findings indicate that the ARS-associated coronavirus described is distinct from the previously reported gastrointestinal-associated coronavirus identified in alpaca herds. Gross findings consisted of severe pulmonary congestion and edema, often with marked pleural effusion. Histologically, there was severe pulmonary congestion and edema with a marked, interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia , free fibrin deposition within the lumen of terminal airways and alveoli, often with hyaline membrane formation. In several cases, this edema and fibrin deposition was accompanied by a variable degree of epithelial necrosis and regenerative hyperplasia.

Fatal Bluetongue virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in California. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:134–136 (2010). Postmortem examination revealed severe hydrothorax and hydropericardium, marked pulmonary edema, and acute superficial myocardial hemorrhage affecting the left ventricle. Bluetongue virus

(BTV) was detected in the spleen by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequence analysis. No antibodies against BTV were detected in the serum using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming acute, fulminant BTV infection.

Cutaneous Angiomatosis in a Llama. J. Comp. Path. 2010, Vol. 142, 228e234: Microscopical examination revealed an irregular parakeratotic lamellar hyperkeratosis associated with diffuse proliferation of arterioles and venules in the superficial dermis.

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